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The scope of this paper will be confined towards the analysis of recruitment practices prevalent in Cognizant Technologies Solutions Corp. There are various techniques used in the recruitment and staffing processes for the purpose of human resource planning. These practices will be analyzed in this research. In this regard, the paper will specifically consider the recruitment practices in the Cognizant Technologies company in the IT sector. The aim of this research will be focused on the analysis of different practices prevalent in this company; one best practice among them will also be selected. For this purpose, a specific research methodology will be selected and implemented in the light of this research aim.

After that the researcher will make use of data collected for the purpose of interpreting findings to decide about any solution for the intended research question. The data collection methodologies will focus on both data collection methods, in order to assure for the accuracy related with the findings, which will be derived out of the processing and interpretation of the data. All the principles and the guidelines which are being followed in the recruitment practices of information and technology personnel will be discussed and associated with the research.. All the discussion carried out will be in form of conclusion at the end of the research work.

Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp. is an information and technology company in America which also offers consulting and outsourcing services in business processes. Cognizant Technologies operates in IT services and IT consulting industry. The company has been one of the best ranked U.S. companies in the year 2011. The nature of the business environment in which the company operates includes its competitors, suppliers, distributors, employees, stakeholders, and customers. Such business environment influences company's marginal sales and profitability. The success in any company like Cognizant Solutions Company, which usually operates mainly for marketing and the acquisition of high profits, is dependent on the management and the establishment of all the products and services that are being offered by the company. For a company to be able to compete and survive in the competitive market, it has to be very successful. The success of a company or organization can be defined by the constant innovation and development of the company’s product lines and the increasing clientele numbers.

Several methodologies are used for the purpose of recruitment and selection of candidates who are suitable for the discharge of organisational commitments. Discharge of organisational duties and commitments may refer to the effective role play related to the job profile handed over to the incumbent. The selection process aims to analyse skills and capabilities of the candidates in relation to the requirements that are to be fulfilled when they are assigned a task. There are many positive and negative aspects that are associated with all the different techniques that are employed for the purpose of recruitment and selection. Accordingly, the human resource planning is a key area that needs to be focused on for the development of the entire organization and for the accomplishment of organizational goals.      

Primarily, this research paper seeks to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques employed for the purpose of recruitment. Thus, there is a potential need for it to be carried out in order to gain an insight into the different recruitment and selection practices used in Cognizant Technologies. This will ultimately help members in the organisation to decide upon the most appropriate method of recruitment.

The recruitment and selection in Cognizant Technologies has been considered as a very important task at the workplace and the entire process is regarded as crucial for the success of the company. The research background explains that there are several techniques employed for the purpose of staff recruitment. These techniques are extremely crucial and do have an impact on the organisational dimensions. In this regard the research question and the other areas to be focused on are also defined in this part of the research work. The key question revolves around the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of various recruitment techniques; while the ancillary questions that are designed to support the main question are related to consideration of specific conditions and situations in the recruitment process.

During the recruitment and selection process, there is a multi-fold interference of technology which is adopted in the company. As a result, when it comes to the selection of professionals for the company itself, there is a pressing need to be more focused and meticulous in the selection criteria and recruitment techniques. This indicates the significance of this research project and explains the aspects that are required in terms of prioritising during the course of the research work. The research motive is related to the evaluation of the relative advantages and disadvantages that underpin the recruitment and selection techniques that are adopted within Cognizant Technologies Company.

A sample size of 50 respondents in the company’s information technology sector was selected on a random basis. The sample size of 50 IT executives, who are handling senior positions and are directly related with the recruitment tasks carried out in this sector, has been selected. It is evident that with the small sample size, it is not possible to gain considerable results, and, as such, the results obtained cannot be generalized for the entire population.

Typeofstudy

The study is both quantitative and qualitative. It involves multivariate regression statistic to study the target group. The statistical instrument used is quantitative as it showed the number of participants studied, while the correlation between the different variables is qualitative.

Hypothesis

It was assumed that there is a direct relationship between the recruitment practices and the general success of the company.

Procedure

A survey would be carried out using questionnaire; the target audiences for this purpose are the management members functional in Cognizant Technologies. Alongside them, managers responsible for the recruitment and selection procedures are also being targeted. Also, in this particular research, the questionnaire has been designed in a way that it is inclusive of several questions related to the recruitment practices being followed in the information and technology sector in Cognizant Technologies. All these questions are meant to gain an insight in the practices prevalent in this industry and in keeping with this, the skills required to be present in the IT professionals are also realized.

In this questionnaire, some alternatives have been stated from which respondents have to select. This would assist respondents in their attempt to complete the questionnaire easily. The use of a structured questionnaire makes the research process smooth, as these questionnaires are easy to administer, and they are also relatively inexpensive. The option of alternate replies at various times helps respondents to understand the meaning of the questionnaire.

The results of the impact study are described in three sections. Based on the results, in response to the section I, it was found out that the majority of the people who are involved with Cognizant IT Company are mostly young people who are between the ages of 20-35, which represented about 70% of the total respondents; with the least respondents belonging to the people who are above 40 years. A total of 56 professionals out of 100 were IT graduates. Only 24 respondents were qualified up to IT Post-graduation and 20 respondents had professional qualification other than graduation and post-graduation in IT.

This reflects that mostly young graduates dominate in the IT sector and are recruited by companies. It was revealed in the graph that 50 out of 100 respondents had been working for a time period of 2-5 years, while 36 respondents had been working for less than 2 years. It should be noted that only 10 out of 100 respondents had been working for a period of 6-9 years, while very few, i.e. only 4 respondents, had an experience of more than ten years in the IT sector.

In the responses to section II, a total of 78 respondents out of 100 said that the organisations had effective recruitment practices when  they were questioned about whether the organisation had effective recruitment practices or not. One should point out that only 18 respondents answered that the organisations did not have effective recruitment practices, and only 4 out of 100 replied 'can't say', as their response, which reflects that the respondents were indeed neutral to the question.

A total of 30 out of 78 respondents replied that utilising the best recruiting tools is the most important factor, which makes recruitment process effective. 26 respondents replied that the cost involved is the most important parameter. On the other hand, 16 expressed their concern with the time consumed parameter and 6 participants replied that resource required is the most important parameter. It can be said that the time consumed and effectiveness are the most crucial parameters.

In response to the section III, the participants filled out a Likert Scale, where the respondents expressed their responses in terms of strongly agree (1), agree (2), neutral (3), disagree (4) and strongly disagree (5). 36 and 30 respondents expressed their response in terms of ‘strongly agree’ and ‘agree’ correspondingly. On the other hand, two groups of 16 and 16 respondents expressed their responses in terms of ‘disagree’ and ‘strongly disagree’, while only 2 participants replied were neutral. It can be said that the recruitment practices being used in Cognizant Technology Solutions are the most appropriate. 56 disagree with the incorporation of a new technology, and 8 of the participants have remained neutral. It can be said that there is no need for the incorporation of new technologies, as the current recruitment practices are effective.

A total of 50 disagreed with the need for the alignment and 6 of the participants remained neutral to the question. It can be concluded that the alignment of the different recruitment practices with each other is needed to increase the impact of the recruitment process. 22 and 22 expressed their response in terms of ‘strongly agree’ and ‘agree’ to the question concerning the requirement of special skills for the discharge of activities to be carried out in the IT sector. On the other hand, 28 and 22 respondents expressed their responses in terms of ‘disagree’ and ‘strongly disagree’, while only 6 participants replied neutral as their response out of 100 respondents. It can be said that there is a requirement of special skills for the discharge of activities to be carried out in the IT sector of the company.

There were 26 and 28 respondents who expressed their opinion in terms of ‘strongly agree’ and ‘agree’ to the question concerning the use of employee referrals for recruitment in IT companies. On the other hand, 20 and 18 respondents expressed their views in terms of ‘disagree’ and ‘strongly disagree’, while 8 participants preferred to be ‘neutral’. It was pointed out that a change could be seen in the recruitment practices in the last few years with respect to the IT industry. This is due to the fact that the majority of participants, i.e. 42 and 26 respondents out of 100 provided their responses in terms of ‘strongly agree’ and ‘agree’ to the question concerning change in the recruitment practices in the past few years within Cognizant Company. On the other hand, 18 and 13 respondents expressed their responses in terms of ‘disagree’ and ‘strongly disagree’, while only 1 participant kept neutral in response to the question.

Discussion

There are several types of recruitment practices, which are followed and carried out in Cognizant Technologies. It is a very basic and core business activity that is carried out in each and every organisation. Similarly, there are beliefs according to which it is stated that recruitment practices are very crucial for such organisations. On the basis of the recruitment practices carried out in the business, a talent pool of favourable candidates is created. This explains that recruitment practices play a crucial role in the human resource planning of any establishment.

The type of skills being utilised in the organisation paves the way for the corporate future. This can be further supported in the light of the fact that employees are regarded as the pillars of the organisation. With the use of employees' skills and intellect, organisation can realize the available opportunities in the most appropriate and fruitful manner. There are several techniques which are utilised for the purpose of recruitment and selection of employees, and a number of these techniques are most favourable and are preferred over other means.

There are two broad headings in which these recruitment techniques are classified; namely internal and external recruitment techniques. In terms of the internal techniques, they are confined to the limits of the organisation and mainly focus on the employees working in the organisation. One of the practices followed and realised in regard to internal recruitment practices can be defined as succession planning. There are serious efforts which are carried out on the part of organisations in this regard, and account for managing the needs of senior level employees in a proactive manner.

With regards to the term proactive, it is worth mentioning that succession planning is carried out before time, when there is no actual position for the profile. On the other hand, there are some other techniques, which are used for recruitment purposes and are defined as internal to the organisation. Also, there are certain positions for which recruiting procedures are carried out on the basis of employee referrals. Various benefits are associated with the use of internal recruitment techniques and one of the key benefits to be mentioned in this regard is related to the attitude of the hired employees.

The employees who are hired on behalf of the referrals of the existing employees are well aware of the norms and practices of the organisation of which they are going to be a part. It helps in the development of a favourable and positive attitude. As for the other category of recruitment practices, it is defined as external recruitment practices, and entails all the sources which are external to the company. Some of the examples to be mentioned in this category are campus placement, use of consultants, newspaper advertisements etc. Specific features are in fact associated with these techniques, which helps in the selection of the most appropriate process of recruitment for the company.

RecommendationsandConclusions

Recruitment and selection practices are the most important aspects to be associated with any organisation like Cognizant Solutions. With the use of these techniques, the corporate plans can be long term in terms of contemporary trends in the industry. It illustrates the importance and impact of recruitment practices in the growth rate and success of the company. This can be elaborated further in that there is a need for the right kind of personnel for a particular job profile. On the basis of this job alignment with the skills of the employees, organisational success can be ensured.

As for findings, which have been determined in light of this research work, there are certain recommendations which are required to be followed by companies functional or running the information and technology sector. The first recommendation, which can be deduced in this regard, is related to the use of recruitment practices. There are questions in the survey which are related to this aspect and tend to determine the orientation of the IT executives of this industry, who are engaged in the process of recruitment and selection of the employees.

The responses analysed in the results section suggest that there is a need for an IT professional to deal with the governance of the recruitment process to be carried out in an effective manner. It is recommended for current companies in the information and technology industry that they should make use of a person having work experience in the IT industry, so that he/she could associate with the specific organisational needs for various profiles. This will enhance the impact and effectiveness of the recruitment activities.

There are some more recommendations, which are to be incorporated for the enhancement of the effectiveness of the recruitment practices in this organisational sector. There are findings suggesting that most of the IT related recruitment practitioners believe that newspaper advertisements are the most effective method to create a talent pool. In this regard, it is recommended for Cognizant Solutions to make use of this technique to deal with the need and requirement of hiring IT professionals for the company.

This will help the company to take full advantage of the benefits associated with this recruitment technique. It is clearly stated and shown in the findings section that most of the people engaged in the recruitment practices in the IT sector are related to the use of these techniques and tend to focus on them only. Hence, the company is advised to keep away from trying new recruitment techniques for crucial positions.

On the basis of the responses gained, it can be recommended for IT professionals to use these recruitment techniques in an integrated manner, which will help in the accomplishment of a proper alignment between these techniques. This recommendation is based on the nature and skills required for various job profiles. There is a need for a particular type of recruitment activity for different positions. In this context, it can be stated that senior level jobs require credible and more qualified personnel, and for this, employee referrals are more suitable. While on the other hand, for lower level jobs, which are more oriented towards regular work and demand less autonomy, newspaper advertisements are the best suited recruitment practice.

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