The Development of Information Systems
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This paper seeks to establish the development of information systems for the enterprise and their future direction. Information systems are a field that keeps on changing with time and invention of better working tools and, therefore, most enterprises have to follow the change and create a way to accommodate these changes. In this paper, we are going to look at these developments and the direction they are likely to take in the future. This is because any development in the information system will call for more innovations in the elements of information systems. In addition, the paper will consider the needs of the enterprise of many sizes and its future opportunities. Enterprises come in different categories depending on the size and operations. Enterprises in the current world are facing considerable challenges from diverse changes making the traditional enterprise information system be out of date. The timely reaction to market changes has turned out to be a competitive advantage.
Information system refers to the grouping of software, hardware, infrastructure and trained personnel organised to make possible control, planning, decision-making, and coordination in an organization. On the other hand, an enterprise refers to a company or a business. The development of information systems is a procedure that involves several steps and the paper will outline these steps. In an enterprise, there exist several relationships between information systems and changes in the enterprise, both within and across firms, which affect the development of information systems. The development in information systems gains exceptional attention as it influences the organisational changes. When analysing the development of information systems we will consider the software, hardware, infrastructure, and trained personnel in line with the enterprise’s plan, control, coordination, and decision-making.
The development of information systems varies with the nature of enterprise and its needs. Different enterprises have varied needs and changes in information system will be in line with these needs. It is, therefore, indispensable for anyone planning to develop an information system of any company or business to consider the nature of enterprise they are dealing with and its needs. There are different types of enterprises including a sole proprietorship, partnership, companies, and corporations. The above types of enterprises have some differences in their ownership, management, liability, amount of capital and their legality. For instance, the sole proprietorship enterprise is whereby the ownership is by one person and so is the management while, for partnership, the management and ownership of the enterprise is by two or more persons.
On the other hand, the categorization of enterprises can be in the form of how the enterprise operates. Examples include Independent enterprises, Competitive enterprises, Supplementary enterprises, and Complementary enterprises. Independent enterprises have no direct bearing on each other and an increase in degree of one another neither helps nor hinders the level of the other. Competitive enterprises are those, which contend for the available resources, while supplementary enterprises are the ones, which can supplement each other. These differences in the different categories of enterprises have different needs, which in turn will call for varied information systems (Kirikova, 2002, p.40). The needs of a corporation will not be the same as those of the partnership business and, therefore, they will have different information systems.
We define the development of the information system as a change procedure taken with respect to object systems in a set of surroundings by a development group using an organized collection of techniques and tools known as a method to attain or maintain some objectives. The process of development of an information system includes improvement of both computerized and manual parts of an object system. In the definition of the Information System, we see that it includes both computer- supported parts and manual. It is, therefore, essential that the development of the information system involves a technique and a method. By a technique, we refer to the set of rules and steps, which characterize how a symbolization of an information system is derived and handled. This is usually by the use of some theoretical structure and related notations. By employing, the technique-procedure system developers observe, define and correspond on certain features of the present or wished object system. Definition and symbolization of these contexts are held by the theoretical structure of the technique and the notation respectively.
The tool in use while applying the technique process means a computer- based application, which sustains the use of a modelling technique. Here, there is an abstraction of the object system into replicas, checking that the replicas are dependable, switching results from one form of replica and representation to another, and giving specifications for re-examination. The major examples of modelling techniques are activity models and data flow diagrams. In the case of data flow diagram, it identifies and names the objects and relationships, which are necessary in developing an information system. For other techniques, they will involve other sets of relationships and objects in development of information system. Modelling techniques have a representation and a notation. For example, in a data flow diagram the notation for a procedure is circular and for a data flow a concrete line with an arrowhead (Prabhu, Kumara, and Kamath, 2003, p 67).
On the other hand, a method is an organized and predefined collection rules and techniques that state what order, by whom, and in what means the techniques are applied to attain or sustain some objectives. This definition includes both the process and product contexts and, therefore, insists on the procedure rather than the representation. The next section we look at is the needs of the enterprise of many sizes. In the earlier discussion, the paper analyzed the different classifications of enterprises and, therefore, these enterprises will have varied needs, when it comes to the system development.
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