Custom «Cloud Computing» Essay Paper
1. Differentiate between Infrastructure as a Service, Platform as a Service and Software as a Service.
According to Armbrust et al. (2010), the services that can be delivered through cloud computing are divided into Platform as a Service, Software as a Service, and Infrastructure as a Service. Software as a Service is the most widely used and user-friendly form of cloud computing as, in most cases, it can be accessed directly from the browser without a need to install or download applications. Vendors that provide Software as a Service can manage everything, from apps and O/S, to virtualization and networking. The example of Software as a Service is Gmail. Platform as a Services provides computational resources via a platform, allowing the developers to build a framework over this platform. Thus, they do not need to purchase additional layers of software and hardware. Unlike Software as a Service, with Platform as a Services, some aspects such as applications and data have to be managed by users, not by providers. Platform as a Services offers a wide range of benefits to the companies that look to increase the efficiency of their network performance and interactivity of a large personnel. The example of Platform as a Services is Apprenda that providers services for .NET and Java software development. Infrastructure as a Service provides computer infrastructure, storage, and networking. Thus, companies do not need to buy software and servers. Instead, users can pay for the services according to how many resources they use, which is similar to a rental fee. Out of all the three cloud computing services, Compared to SaaS and PaaS, with Infrastructure as a Service users are responsible for managing the most: apps, data, runtime, and O/S.
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2. The authors claim: “Developers with innovative ideas for new Internet services no longer require the large capital outlays in hardware to deploy their service or the human expense to operate it.” Discuss the statement, pointing out whether and why you agree or disagree with the proposition.
The companies do need to be worried about overprovisioning that tends to waste costly resources. In addition, they are not concerned about underprovisioning, which makes them miss potential clients and revenues. Cloud computing eliminates the capital expenses transforming them into operational expenses. It is beneficial when demand for a service is not constant for all times. Thus, a company can pay for using resources, leading to savings. Organizations that have the need for massive analytic tasks can use cloud computing to perform computations faster as using 1,000 machines for one hour is “cost associative” to using one machine for 1,000 hours. Such elasticity of resources without overpaying for large scale is a unique possibility for that has never been available in the history of IT before the companies (Armbrust et al., 2010).
3. Discuss the ‘cloud computing economics’, i.e. why cloud computing is an economic choice for companies of any size.
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Cloud computing is an economic choice due to “pay as you go” principle, as stated by Armbrust et al. (2010). Services obtained through cloud computing can be distributed unevenly. For example, a company can use 100 server-hours at one day and not use the service on the next one, and pay for 100. Thus, even if the services are more expensive than purchasing and maintaining one’s own server over the same amount of time, Armbrust et al. (2010) argue that the expenses are compensated by such economic benefits as elasticity and transference of risk of over-provisioning and under-provisioning.
Elasticity refers to the ability to change resources at a small scale, such as one machine at a time, and with a lead-time of minutes. In order to establish one’s own servers, it can take weeks to order and install new equipment, so it must be purchased in advance. However, service providers cannot always make precise predictions. Therefore, the capacity is either overestimated or underestimated. Both cases lead to loss of revenuues, but while the overprovisioning can be easily estimated, the underprovisioning is more problematic to calculate. However, it can be more serious. Not only does a company lose potential profit, the rejected users may never come back (Armbrust et al., 2010).
Cloud computing offer many benefits for companies of different sizes and their IT budget. Cloud services allow startup companies to quickly deploy into a rented infrastructure provided by a cloud vendor without having to buy loads of machines, hire operating personnel, and construct a data center. Small and middle-sized companies can use cloud computing services to instantaneously use the benefits of top-class infrastructure without having to obtain, install, and manage it. Large companies are less eager to use cloud services since they are being cautious. However, many of them use it to test the services with some non-mission critical application.
4. See table 2 for the article, on the main obstacles for cloud computing growth. Discuss each of the ten arguments presented in the article.
1. Business Continuity and Service Availability
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Users expect high availability from services similar to those of the popular services such as Google Search. However, it is sometimes difficult to achieve. The problem lies in the viability of results from entrusting the management of a cloud computing service to a single vendor. The service provider may share software and accounting systems, so in case of any problem, the user risks to lose all the data. Another threat is that a company can even go out of business. Thus, the best way to manage it is to use multiple providers.
2. Data Lock-In
Often, customers cannot easily get their data from one provider to run on a new one. One way to solve that problem is to make a single standard of the APIs so that a Software as a Service developer could provide across different providers. Therefore, the problem with one company would not make it lose all the data.
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