Effects of Administration Failure on Torture
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There have been a lot of humans being abused in Iraq after its invasion by the US. These human tortures were being committed by the US military in conjunction with other intelligence agencies. There was wide spread of torture with the Iraq interior ministry subjecting the prisoners to torture. There are circumstanced under which the countries involved in the invasion must be held accountable for the immoral acts that were inflicted to the Iraq prisoners. The military were using torture as a method of obtaining intelligent information from the prisoners, and they would routinely inflict physical and mental injuries to the prisoners.
The acts of tortures were known by the various department of the command. These departments never took any steps in preventing the abuses by the military to the prisoners. The account of the soldiers is a clear indication of how there was the failure by the administration to insist on the adherence of law to its military personnel, which may have been the contributor to the prisoners torture by the US soldiers. The individual’s cognitive moral development is the stage that determines how ethical dilemmas are thought by individuals in deciding what is right or wrong in a situation (Trevino, 1986). The military effort to conduct investigation is seen as to target the junior officers not regarding the upper chain of command. There were several reason why there was a wide spread of abuse of prisoners in Iraq as there was no leadership guidance to these prison camps. These abuses to the Iraq prisoners were emanating far up the chain of command of the US administration, and the refusal to adhere to the international convection on the proper treatment of war prisoners (UniversalPeriodicReview, 2010).
The most damaging violation of human right is torture which, has been declared by the UN to be inherent violator of human right. There has been a tremendous use of torture to prisoners around the world. The physical and mental sufferings are usually inflicted with the purpose of obtaining information or confession by the victims. The aftermath of torture is suffering from the psychological trauma, though there are instances by which some victims prove to be better off in coping with the trauma (Gamble, 2011). The torture victims with positive attitudes of recovery from torture, become less anxious, and thus they are perfect in adjusting to the society.
The psychological effects also have the tendency of affecting those who commit these acts, although it is not well known the psychological effects to those who commit torture. The torture acts that were committed to the Iraq prisoners of war were propagated by the fact that; the governments that were involved in the invasion of Iraq failed to prevent the prisoners from inhuman treatment by their soldiers. This was due to the extent of the job which has an impact to the individual moral development (Trevino, 1986). Under the CAT regulation, US government was under obligation to prevent these abuses. The breach of the CAT regulations by the US government indicates that it was responsible for allowing the torturing of these prisoners. The requirement of the international laws, in respect to the human rights provides that, the occupying country has the responsibility to the country occupied of which, the US and its allies failed to provide (Carayon, 2007). The Iraq prisoners were subjected to violation by the US troops, describing it to be plans of enhancing security to the forces. The situations that the prisoners were subjected were intolerable and inhuman, as the arrests were unwarranted for (UniversalPeriodicReview, 2010). The prisoners were not allowed to access counsel at the times of interrogations, which were conducted by the same units of arresting.
There was an increase in involvement of intelligence personnel in cases of murder, which was as a result of torture, with a phenomenon of bodies scattered in the country, with signs of torture. There was a continued deteriorating of the camps conditions and inhuman treatment of these prisoners. There was the lack of the camps administration involvement which had an effect of delaying the prisoner’s cases, thus extending the review of their cases. The increasing number of the judicial authorities and the personnel did not have an effect that could facilitate the completion of the detainees’ cases. This did not aid in solving the problem due to the continued arrests by the authorities (UniversalPeriodicReview, 2010).
The US occupational forces were using the ugliest methods of interrogation to the prisoners, and yet they were not able to charge them of any crime, thus handing them to the next cycle of suffering under the Iraq authority. The victims released by the occupational forces were then rearrested by the Iraq authority, rendering them again to torture.
There was a wide spread phenomenon of the systematic abuses of the prisoners that included torture and inhuman degrading treatment by the US interrogators. The behaviors of the soldiers were with a particular cognitive level, but their morals in the social context were influenced by the situation. this led to them committing act that were unethical though it was not an individual character (Trevino, 1986).This was a revelation of how the US administration had established a camp for Iraq prisoners’ mistreatment, and deaths that were as a result of torture. There was an indicator that these illegal means were perpetrated by the US administration through the military forces. The feature of impunity was dominant, as all the perpetrators of the abuses were immune which they received in advance by the officials of the US administration, to adopt a variety of methods to the prisoners. The procedures that were taken by the US regarding their accountability to the abuses, was propagated to absorb the people’s anger, and later the charges were either dropped or lighter sentences were handed, which hardly matched the crimes of atrocities that were committed.
There were no efforts by the military to conduct investigations that were broader; that would focus how the command chain involved in perpetrating the reported abuses. The abuses were even committed by the US best trained, and respected units and this describes how the techniques of interrogating were known to the officers in higher offices, as they were ordered by the military intelligence (HumanRightWatch, 2005). Guidance on how the military was supposed to treat the prisoners was not effective as it lacked the key elements to guide the soldiers’ relations with the prisoners.
The administration of the US did not insist on its military personnel on the recognized, lawful and standards that are well defined, and this contributed to the torturing of the prisoners. The confusion of the ranks due to legal sanctions that exposed the soldiers when there was an occurrence of abuses. This changed the way and positions of those who wished to act honorably, due to the betrayal by the policies in place to soldiers (HumanRightWatch, 2005). The US administration had decided not to apply the Geneva Convention, even though it was stating that the convention was in effect.
The prisoners’ torture was used as a mean of releasing stress by the military personnel as they would visit the prisoners’ camp while off duty to torture them. The treatment of the detainees was directed by the military intelligence and the officers that were in charge of the guards. This would in turn change the good people to become bad due to the situations they are subjected at the camps (Zimbardo). The safeguarding of the prisoners wads supposed to be undertaken by the military police, as it was accorded by the army field manual, and the maintaining of these captives. The repression of the soldiers by their command made them to turn to inhuman acts.
The use of soldiers to safeguard the prisoners and preparation of them for interrogation was indeed a violation of the manual, instead of them being looked after by the military police. Failure of the leadership to provide good had led the soldiers themselves to deve4lop policies that they adopted in preparation of the prisoners for interrogation, as anything that was allowed to, happen had to happen, and this entire trend were acceptable (Carayon, 2007). Most of the military personnel used the aspect of human nature when torturing the prisoners, as they had gained the authority in handling the prisoners. The soldiers in Iraq were not interacting with the intelligent agencies on the various methods employed in stressing prisoners. Subjection to this situation enhanced the military learn on stressing changing their moral behaviors. The interrogation ugly, but the military became accustomed. This was due to lack of moral resources as there were no preventive measures for immoral behavior thus, lack of respect and sympathy to others leading to committing of atrocities. This had an adverse effect to soldiers as they turned to the prison camps to drain their frustration on the prisoners.
The US administration was thus responsible for not preventing these acts of abuse by its military as it had disregarded the Geneva Convention, arguing that they convention was not effective in pursuance of the terrorists. This decision was the main influence to inhumane treatment of the prisoners in Iraq by the US forces. There was no adherence to the rule of law that concerned treatment of prisoners of war. The disregard of the Geneva Convention precisely, led the US forces in Iraq to apply basic rules while handling the prisoners, which in essence lacked ethic as this was a form of dehumanization. The influence of behavior and control are enhanced by the situation, and this helps in understanding and recognition of the social structure and situations.
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