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Medical Law and Ethics

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Medical negligence proceedings require the claimant to prove the mistakes or failures of the practitioner. This evidence is a crucial step in such lawsuits as they determine and consider the required standard of care. The usual test in law for such medical situations remains concrete for the Bolam test. Mr. Bolam’s test ethically illustrated a practitioner’s neglectful nature since it was not fostered by an answerable body able to pass clinical judgment. While there does not exist a case decree associated specifically with non-conformity with of infection control practices, the role of electroconvulsive therapy is an example of the root for the law that determines whether a  healthcare expert is prone to punishment after proved neglect of a patient’s health. The following paper analyzes the role of this test in the course of the Bolam against Friern Hospital Management Committee in 1957, in correspondence with medical law.

Literature review: Role of the test Bolam V Friern Hospital Management Committee

The problem of the regulation of the people’s significance is the leading cause of the Bolam versus Friern presentation to the Lordships. The case was left up to the two results of the test with the facts in the hands of the trial judge. Firstly, the Bolam against Friern test declared its initial results, claiming that Friern was not informed preoperatively, that the danger of nerve injuries could end in paralysis. A question arose in the midst of the jury concerning the procedure that judges should take towards determining whether the mandatory clinical requirement existed. Therefore, the therapy was carried out. As a result, the test was initially carried out to assist the judges in making a verdict on the case. During the accumulation of the integration of the findings on the case, there was an argument over the potential role of the Bolam versus Friern in human liberties proceedings. The therapy observance did not justify the law behind Bolam’s voluntary position. Such cases could only be criticized if they were outside the domain of the treatment to be used.

The case was presented to the English Lordships through the Bolam test. This test attempted to win the judges side of the litigation through the provision of evidence logical and accountable actions of the practitioner. Particulars of the test presented during the proceedings include the Bolam versus Friern Hospital Management Committee. The test was able to approve that it as neither logical nor accountable for a practitioner not to talk about the threat of impotence from rectal surgical procedure. A noteworthy threat that would have an impact on Bolam’s opinion would be a physician’s task to inform the patient of the test’s possible risks.

The test provided results confirmed the significance of such information to Bolam. Friern Hospital Management Committee was believed to have ignored this issue, and if correctly cautioned, she would not have agreed to the surgery, and avoid the injury caused. Even though the test could not dispute the failure to caution Bolam, the committee’s position had been described by the therapist’s failure to issue muscle relaxants from the start. Nevertheless, the judge observed a dissimilar view of the test provided before the case. It was through the test that the judge referred to the committee’s signs of honesty, and did not try to go that far. These signs satisfied the jury when judging the committee’s decision. Therefore, the test certifies as facts proven for causation.

Results of the Bolam V Friern Hospital Management Committee test

It is evident that any novel psychological health legislation is supposed to recognize and cope with these worries. One such resolution might be extending the role of the test, into the therapies that are encompassed by the submission of sections 62 and 63, as discussed by the Hospital Management Committee. The test was indeed carried out and found out to be impossible without muscle relaxants and tying the patient to the bed. Whilst the findings in this case had doubts concerning its common alterations to the practice of mandatory therapy for patients under arrest, the test managed to cause propositions for amendments to the current practitioners negligence act. The test pushed for rigorous changes in the act, promoting the restriction of the independence of patients.

The abolition of the “treatability” analysis was also part of the findings made by the test. The “treatability” analysis was believed to be to make Bolam be held in custody under the MHA, and devoid of any apparent health benefit. The introduction of a monitored community treatment was also part of the results of the test, and was found to be contentious. Therefore, Bolam, while under detainment, would subsequently have to be evoked back to the medical facility, once released to the community, and reject medication. This way, Bolam, who needed extra remedies and physician’s advice, would have been controlled to lower and prevent cases of suicide and inflicting harm on other people in the community. The evidence provides from the test faced certain conflicts as to the point the electroconvulsive therapy conducted on Mr. Bolam while at the medical institute.

The outcomes of the therapy were certainly not valid since the treatment was not finished and the severity of the injuries imposed on Mr. Bolam. The sensory disturbance caused on his nervous, skeletal and circulatory system were considered invalid since the practitioners involved in the test did not administer him with muscle relaxants. Being a volunteer served Mr. Bolam as a point of ruling over the practitioners’ cause of belief that he did not pay for the therapy. In accordance with medical law, ethical considerations comprise of civil liberties for people under a marginalized sphere of influence. The therapy conducted on Bolam moved the locus of the psychological health regulations. Mr. Bolam was not aware of the consequences of faulty hazards that could result from the test. The Friern Hospital Management Committee violated clinical regulations addressed by the jury during the proceedings, and breached guidance decrees expressed in the Socio-Legal Studies Association Ethical Codes and principles.


Over and above any general lawful responsibilities, the General Medical Council of 1995 points out fourteen precise expertise responsibilities, with their own guidelines, that assist physicians such as the one responsible for Mr. Bolam’s injuries. As part of national medical law, the duties of a practitioner are seen as being owed to an exact patient. The regulations and its principles do not recognize any such affiliations; making third party individuals involved in the doctor’s duty of care emphasize their efforts on the healthcare of individuals. While there does not exist a case decree associated specifically with non-conformity with of infection control practices, the role of electroconvulsive therapy is an example of the root for the law that determines whether a  healthcare expert is prone to punishment after proved neglect of a patient’s health.

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