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The civil rights movement, which covered the aftermath of second world war through the end of the 1960s, marked a turning point era, which achieved far more than the exclusion of racial barriers; it resulted to the vast transition of American cultural, social, economic, and political experiences. Alterations to widespread idea concerning the citizenship rights of blacks, for instance, joined with a restatement of the function of the courts and the government in defending these rights persists to support the human rights throughout America, in spite of their skin color. During this time, the movement occurred as campaign of civil rights targeted at obtaining change through nonviolent kinds of resistance.

The procedure was long and straining, nonetheless, in 1950s, two incidents emphasized the movement’s intentions and brought it to public spotlight. NAACP on May 17, 1954 won an exceptional legal battle. The Supreme Court collectively ruled that isolation in public schools was unconstitutional. At this time, most Southern racist activities were strongly established, and most whites remained unyielding to the change. This move led to fierce resistance by school heads and even threatened to harass the black students. The other occurrence that attracted public eye happened in Montgomery, Alabama. On December 1, 1955, the NAACP official boarded a public bus and occupied the back seat, but Parks later opposed to giving out the seat to a white passenger. The blacks during that week boycotted public bus system and in support of Parks, NAACP and some other leaders took that chance to create attention of their cause. A vast resistance led by Martin Luther King Jr. challenged the racist laws. The blacks persisted in their boycott for almost a year before the federal courts interceded and reconciled the buses. This incident was remarkable not because it pulled down certain Jim Crow law but also because it illustrated that the colored people by determination and unity can make their voices listened to and affect change. In 1957, the Civil Rights Act was passed compelling voting and other rights to the blacks. On the other hand, NAACP steadily challenged the reinforcement of segregation, and several new associations were created to promoting civil rights most of which were Christian based (Brinkley, 2006).             

How was the movement the product of both grassroots African-American leadership and international developments since World War II?

The movement was the product of both grassroots African-American leadership because throughout this period, the Kings and other leaders were concerned on the welfares of all individuals. They combined forces to fight for equality and the massive gathering that was usually the common activity in support of their unity, leadership skills were cultivated as most of those who were chosen learned how to bargain with the government and other authorities. The most affected victims were the blacks but with the determination and unity, they managed to convince the whites that they also had equal rights. Through the various campaigns Kings and leaders across the world so the sense of unity and federalism. The acceptance of blacks was a great relief since instead of having constant conflicts; there was improvement in development locally and internationally. This was because individuals were free to share ideas and skills. This also enhanced movement where international trade was promoted. It was therefore, clear that through peaceful coexistence and equality everyone will be satisfied and contribute equally to economic development both locally and internationally.

What impact did the Black Power movement have?

The movement was famous in the late 1960s through to 1970s and was a tool for stressing the racial pride and development of black political and cultural organizations to cultivate and support black unprecedented concerns and improve black values. The movement illustrates a wide field of political objectives, from protection over racial coercion, to the creation of separate social organizations and a self-sufficient economy. In addition, the movement assisted inn arranging a number of society self help groups an organizations, which did not rely on the whites. It was applied to compel black learning programs at different levels of learning, and to rally black voters to select black candidates both directly and indirectly. Also as a replacement of the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Power movement developed what Herbert Haines call constructive essential flank impact on political issues of the 1970s (Brinkley, 2006).

Lesson 6 Essay

Discuss the difficulties of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War from the first Bush Administration through the second Bush Administration.

The foreign policy of the United States refers to a foreign rule of the US in which it associates with other nations and creates standards of association for its citizens, corporations, and institutions. The policy over the years has faced many challenges in delivering its objectives. However, after the Cold War, the US foreign policy has encountered crucial changes but hindered by several difficulties. For example, 11 Sept 2001 attack caused increased hardship of the US foreign policy. More stress was put on the military reaction to war on terrorism. However, since the end of the Cold War through to the Bush administration, the US has faced two major difficulties. One of them being how the government would fill the huge political vacuum developed by the withdrawal of the hegemonies currently practices by Japan and Germany against big and fundamental fields of Northern Hemisphere. The ambiguity and surfacing conflicts over the assistant remarks relating to not only Central and Eastern Europe but also sections of East Asia, which have been overtaken by Japan. This is comprised of alas Indochina, the inhabitation of Asian factors of the difficulty came to transform not just the Soviet Union and the US settlers of influenced borders but also, with the achievement of Chinese evolution, the new communist power in China (Brinkley, 2006). 

President George Walker Bush (president from 1989-1993) and the George Bush junior who too office in 2001 invented the term “new world order” following the failure of communism and just before the effectiveness of the Gulf War campaign. The policy has been also influenced by the increasing economic hardship throughout the world. US being the world superpower state is given the mandate of controlling the economic factors, but with general challenges in the entire world, their foreign policy faces many difficulties as the other nations depend on their decisions.           

How has America struggled with its post-Cold War identity?

The end of the Cold War and US administration has generated a distinct chance to create reflective alterations in the international humanitarian structure. On the same note, there are new problems, most of which resulted from the collapse of the Soviet Union. The collapse is considered great achievements by the US administration since it has no other close competitor in terms of military operation and economics. The US has also tried as much to dominate most of the world crucial areas and suppressing those who might form alliances over them. For instance, the supposed weapons of mass destruction at Iraq were destroyed and military deployed in various places throughout the world to oversee and detect criminal activities. The Americans also have succeeded in influencing world politics as a survival tactic following the end of Cold War (Brinkley, 2006).   

What strategies were attempted in the 1990s?

Since the Soviets no longer support any socialist, while Chinese have least opportunity of extending their influence, the US adopted different approaches of remaining the superpower. One of the approaches is to ensure other capable nations ignore the national sovereignty of a state lead by authoritarian rulers. They set out strict rules for such leaders and whoever breaks them faces criminal offences at international courts. This led to most countries supporting their administration, thus, reducing chances of merging and fighting against the US. Furthermore, the US also concentrated more on developed countries and ensured they dominated their activities and economics. This was done by increasing donor activities across borders and imposing regulations to govern their activities. 

How did 9-11 reshape American foreign policy?

The 9-11 attack changed the American history in almost all sectors. However, many changes were made on the foreign policy that controls the relationship of the US with other countries. More worries were visible in the national security strategy since the attack was a show down that the American’s military were not doing enough in combating terrorist, which could have encouraged other countries to develop alliances and coalition especially the Islamic states. They had to act immediately to create strong policies that would break countries from forming such coalitions. The desire for amendments in policy was certainly urgent since grand regulations can easily gain momentum, with current intercessions causing more challenges calling for further actions. The policy after the attack was intended, therefore, to address real risk facing the country. As a nation, they anonymously campaign to support a realistic foreign policy for America (Brinkley, 2006). 

What difficulties ensued from that new policy?

There were several difficulties encountered after the creation of the new policy. One, is that most countries did not accept the policy because they felt threatened by the attack, they rejected the US policy because by accepting terrorist will also attack them for supporting the US government. Other factors ensuing form the creation of the policy is effects of domestic interests, the policies or character of other states including plans to increase certain geopolitical designs.  

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