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Charles seven attacked the Danes who had thought of invading Sweden and with his very able team of military officers he conquered and subdued them. He had already proved his strength through this win and after this he attacked the much larger Russia. He attacked Narva and routed them. Charles felt very strong militarily through this win yet another time. He was overconfident and was willing to try an even bigger team of military officers. In his quest for this achievement, he attacked the Saxons to occupy Poland.
He concentrated on this ambition at the expense of a larger Russia that was attacking in revenge led by Peter the great. Peter was used to warfare as statistics show that he only experienced an 18 month period of peace during the whole period of his leadership. He was therefore one experienced leader who had realized the secret of success in any warfare.
Among the tips he had received from countries in the West were
- Ability to create a centralized bureaucracy
- Presence of a standing and strong army and navy
- Practice of raison d eat
He attacked Charles with an unending zeal and Charles reiterated. This however was defeated by famine and drought during winter therefore the soldiers fought with less morale. They had also lost at the battle of Poltava in 1709. The Swedish army was defeated and Charles immediately took possession in the West. The political axis of power shifted to Russia.
The war of Spanish succession emerged in 1902-1914. Attempts to get a suitable replacement to take over Spain leadership failed. The Bourbon and Hapsburg dynasties exploded into warfare. Louis IV sent his troops into Netherlands. William III formed the grand alliance. They wanted to prevent further unification of France and Spain.
This ended in the Treaty of Utrecht which forced France to
1. Renounce the idea of a union with Spain.
2. Give up the Spanish Netherlands to Austria
3. Renounce all territories east of River Rhine.
4. Raze all the fortifications at Dunkirk.
5. Surrender important territories in North America to Great Britain.
6. Britain acquired the base of Gibraltar.
This treaty aimed at achieving peace and tranquility of Europe through a balance of power. Spain realized the principles of the maxim of securing forever the good of Europe. The subject of space craft and force occurs at the end of a dangerous period of violence. Louis iv started reflecting on the importance of peace and tranquility.
A certain diplomat friend of Louis IV wrote on the Manner of Negotiating with princess in 1716. The book outlines the ideas necessary in all negotiations o achieve significant leadership.
A leader requires a frivolous mind, an observant one and the spirit application which refuses to be distracted. The book upholds that dignity, morality and virtue are important values for successful diplomacy and leadership.
Callieres was against dishonesty in acquiring wealth and leadership terming it as unruly. He adds that truth must be upheld at all times by a negotiator. He maintains that a country’s foreign relations should be held and led by professionals and not just political appointees. He said that an incompetent country’s envoy can do more harm than good to diplomacy standards.
A major part of success of any state is the establishment of a strong diplomacy to foreign states. The diplomacy must be headed by an ambassador or secretary. Soldier Fredrick William 1 during the wars against Louis XIV maintained these principles as well as having a centralized government and strong standing army. Fredrick’s son Fredrick II followed in his father’s footsteps working to centralize bureaucracy and his army. In Venice, consuls were appointed by the communities around though not to act like diplomats. They acted like bank representatives. They had high access to senior officials making them appear like diplomacy representatives.
Milan was the first country to send a diplomatic representation to Italy. Between 1430 and 1440 the habit of representation had become common.
The title of ambassador was later selected to describe the resident representative. Lying, cheating, and concealment were however common with this development since the diplomats were working for the interest of the appointing authority.
Emergence of the Resident in northern and Western Europe
Italy diffused to the greater Europe in the 17th century sending representatives to almost all European countries. France invaded Italy in1494. Smaller states could also not stay free without being attacked by stronger states. Italy became the cock-pit in which large states fought for supremacy. These were Spain, Austria and the French ruling family (Valois). Italy therefore had the need to be represented more than any other state. Milan sent a representative to Spain. A Genoese merchant was sent to represent Italy in Henry VII. Naples sent residents to Spain, England and Germany.
The introduction of diplomacy appears to come after a series of wars. Driven by the race for arms and consequently countries trying to prove their military strength there were fights and struggles between countries. They were fighting each other to take complete dominion and thus be able to exploit resources. The major powers such as Spain and France had already established a standing army that was being commanded to attack.
The frequent attacks saw death of people and destruction of property happening, something that was wrong. Peace organizations were set up to try and change this and it led to treaties being signed. To maintain peace and tranquility, the idea of diplomacy came in. It was a direct result of emergence of super powers like Russia. Representatives sent by one country into another were important so that things would run smoothly. They would have to bargain on behalf of their governments back at home.
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