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This an essay which examines the factors that lead to bullying among the school aged going students. There are many opinions on the issue of bullying among school aged children. In general the causes can be classified into three factors which are family factors, individual factors and school factors. All these factors make a contribution towards enhancing bullying to take place. This essay examines all these factors in details and tries to show how they contribute towards bringing about bullying among school aged children. This essay makes use of relevant and up to date resources in collecting information about the causes of bullying among the school aged children. The essay starts by defining what bullying is and goes to cover the three causes of bullying highlighted above. Recommendations are drawn with the conclusion finishing the essay.
What is bullying. Bullying has been given the definition: repeated and systematic harassment and attacks on others. According to Olweus (1993), “A student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other students” (Olweus, 1993, p. 9). The process of bullying can be undertaken by a group or an individual. The forms of bullying have been identified to be quite many with the following being just a sample:
- physical violence and attacks
- verbal taunts, name-calling and put-downs
- threats and intimidation
- extortion or stealing of money and possessions
- exclusion from the peer group
It has been that bullying can be based around ethnicity. From research statistics, it has been shown that bullying is quite prevalent in schools with the boys being, in most cases, the bullies and the lower grade students and girls being the victims (ASAP, 1996).
How Bullying takes place. It has been shown that a given state of dynamics must exist for the process of bullying to take place. This is outlined in the order that follows:
A power differential exists between the bully and the victim; Bullies tend to confident, aggressive, and lack empathy for the victim; Bullies come from homes where there is poor supervision, and modeling of and tolerance for aggressive behavior; Victims tend to be quiet, passive children with few friends; Victims do not respond effectively to aggressive actions; Bullying is often done so that adults are not aware of it; Victims are ashamed, and often don't tell an adult (ASAP, par. 4). From the above it is shown that bullying to take place there has to be a power imbalance to make it possible for the process to take place
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