Best Practices for Students with ADHD
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Recommendations for Future Practice
Academic success is mostly a function of behavior in the school environment and other environments such as home environment. It is, therefore, important to treat each case individually and make recommendations based on specific cases. This research focused on the academic success of ADHD students and the interventions done in the past. The researcher encountered problems and limitations and came up with recommendations for future research areas as outlined in the section above. This section discusses possible practices that can be employed in future research in an attempt to resolve the issues and limitations of this study. The recommendations for future research are as follows:
It is recommended that future research should take into consideration the level of cognitive development of students.
The researcher acknowledges that past research described in this paper did not consider the intelligence quotient (IQ) of the subjects. Past research has made the assumption that learning ineffectiveness for ADHD is performance rather than an aptitude problem (DuPaul & White, 2004). Therefore, special assessment should be carried out among students and subjects to determine their academic ability and their cognitive ability. Future research should seek to identify how cognitive ability affects the academic achievement of the students. They should also seek to find out the different levels of intelligence quotient of the students with ADHD as compared to normal students.
It is recommended that future practice should consider behavior in other environments (DuPaul & White, 2004).
Past research has shown that academic ability is a function of behavior. The research has also shown that behavior varies with environment and the intensity of reinforcement. It is important to note that behavior and environment interfere with each other. This means that school-based intervention programs will only succeed if other environment intervention programs, like home and social environments, are implemented concurrently. In the future, researchers should study how reinforcement of behaviour in other environments affects the school-based intervention program. They should also seek to provide recommendations on how behavior reinforcements in all environments should be performed to make the school-based intervention successful. Future practice of the research should allow involvement of parents in the school-based intervention program. Future research should also endeavor to give parents intervention tools to reinforce the school-based intervention program.
It is recommended that future researchers should consider other types of ADHD in their research (DuPaul & White, 2004).
There are three types of ADHD namely ADHD with inattentiveness as the predominant symptom, ADHD with hyperactive –impulsive behavior being predominant, and ADHD with a high degree of all behaviors being present. Future research should seek to identify and group their subjects according to the types of ADHD. This is because the intervention measures taken on the students do not seek similar outcomes for the different types of ADHD. Future research should identify their subjects’ weaknesses in academic achievement based on their behavior type. They should also seek to come up with intervention measures tailored to meet the specific problems of each type of ADHD as opposed to measures that address ADHD as a singular behavior.
It is also recommended that future researchers should identify the secondary implications of the intervention program especially where medication intervention is concerned (DuPaul & White, 2004).
Researchers should not only focus their attention on results related to academic achievement, but should also focus on the implications of their intervention measures on other areas of life of the subject. Behavior intervention may affect their neurological balance, thus causing subjects to experience headaches or other behavioral symptoms such as withdrawal. Researchers should document their overall findings and well-being of the subject not just in academics abut also in social relationships and health.
Furthermore, it is recommended that future researchers should widen their research to deal with intervention measures of reinforcing positive attributes of the subjects.
The fact that ADHD students have learning complications does not mean they do not have other talents and abilities (Mehl-Madrona, 2001). Future research should seek to identify talents of their subjects and base their intervention program on the them. ADHD students should be encouraged to develop their talents and to use their abilities in dealing with their academic performance. Researchers should find out how talents and abilities of their subjects affect their learning abilities. Researchers should also seek to identify how reinforcement and encouragement of their talents can influence their learning abilities.
Finally, future researchers should encompass physical intervention measures in the school-based program research.
ADHD students experience hyperactivity disorder, thus it is difficult for them to stay in one place for a long time (Mehl-Madrona, 2001). This inevitably reflects on the level of their academic achievements. For this reason it is important for researchers to enlarge their studies to include measures of dealing with physical movement aspect. Future research should endeavor to identify the implications of physical activity on the learning ability of the subjects. They should seek to identify how physical activity stimulates cognitive ability and behavior reinforcement.
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