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According to (Swanson, 2000), giving the infant the experience with what is safe and available in your home gives the baby a grasp of reality and life. The baby’s family should stimulate the baby’s touch and interaction as a part of her growth emotionally, mentally, and physically. The emotional care is given to the baby is her foundation for a lively and healthy baby. This is the basic care given to children. This surmised to be the primary goal of every parent. As noted by (Kishimoto & Shizawa, 2008, p.287), each parent should endeavor in feeding the child well, as this plays an important role in preventing the child from contracting diseases.
Essentially, one of the basic things that should be taken into account is the child sleep. The child should be swaddled well because, small children have big surface are to volume ratio, therefore; they should be kept warm and comfortable. This keeps them more secure, and they feel better, when they are tightly swaddled. This may vary with some children kicking the blanket. However, it is generally a requirement for all newborn children to undergo this procedure. One is required to lay the blanket to be a square. It should be followed by many receiving blankets which are mostly given in a package.
The blanket is then placed as a diamond the head of the baby goes in one corner of the square blanket, the arms of the baby pointed the two corners and, the foot pointing the last corner which points the opposite of the head. Here, draw up first the foot portion, leave the arms on the chest, and bring one flap of the blanket over and tightly tuck it under, then, bring the other flap over and tuck it under. In doing this, child is tightly swaddled. When preparing for the arrival of the child from the hospital, it is necessary for one to have a good bottle, and a pacifier in the house.
Consequently, one could wonder as to why bottle is necessary bearing in mind that the child is going to be breast fed, but these bottles come in handy in the event that the mother would require a break and leave the child in someone’s care. Therefore, the mother’s milk is pumped into this bottle for someone else to feed the baby. It is also very important as it helps the baby in getting used to bottle feeding. The pacifiers, on the other hand, are of great help especially if the baby is fussy, who after coming home from hospital won’t sleep as asserted by (Bostan, 1999, p. 87). The only disadvantages of using a pacifier is that the baby it might cause nipple confusion to the baby, and make the baby not want to latch on too well, in the event that one is planning to breast feed. In many cases, however, your child will guide in the way she likes to be treated from her responses on various treatment through crying or otherwise. This will bring out parental instinct the will guides one automatically.
Responses to baby’s cries
A baby just like any other person needs to communicate. The media through which a child communicates are through crying. Therefore, anytime a child cries, she there is a message she is trying to put across that needs to be responded to that situation (Rowe & Allison, 2010, p.240). It may imply that he is hungry or uncomfortable. It helps her in responding to sensations that are too intense to suit him and assists in release tension. Your baby may have fussy periods throughout the day and may be inconsolable, but after this periods, she back to her normal self and seems more alert than before, which is normally followed by good deep sleep. This condition helps the babies to release excess energy.
If one pays close attention to different cries with time one is soon able to tell when she needs to be tended to, picked up, or consoled and those times that she needs to be on herself. One may even master specific needs, by the way, she cries. For example, for a hungry baby the cry is characterized by short and low-pitched, with rising and falling intervals. While, for an angry baby the cry is more unstable. The cry implying that she needs to be left alone is similar to the hunger cry. According to (Rowe, & Allison, 2010, p 245), as the baby grows up, the cries become more elaborate as opposed to newborns cries that may sometimes overlap confusing one of the intended messages.
In response to the infants’ cries, one should try to attend to the most pressing issues first. In case she is cold, hungry and his diapers are wet, the first thing should be making the baby warm then move on to feeding her. If the this cry persist, one should try the following and see which technique works for her: Rocking her in your arms and swaying her from side to side, singing, walking him in your arms, a stroller, or a carriage, Gently patting his chest or back, Playing soft music, a tight blanket that the baby has been swaddled in, give her a warm bath, Riding in the car, Burping her to relieve any trapped gas bubbles.
In the event that all this fails, it is advisable to leave the baby alone since some babies have to cry before crying. In case, the baby is tired the cry mostly does not last long. If all this techniques proves futile, then the baby might be sick so the first thing one should do is checking the baby’s rectal temperature and if it exceeds 100 degrees Fahrenheit she could be having an infection and one should contact a pediatrician.
In tackling with the baby when she is crying, one should be relaxed in doing this. Babies are sensitive to tension around them, and so when on panics it may worsen the cries of the baby as noted by (Zwart & Ledebt, 2005, p. 249). Therefore, if you are unable to handle the baby at that point one should seek assistance from another person who is experienced with those kinds of situations, a change in faces can at times calm the baby. One should never result to shaking the baby as this could have an adverse effect to the child. For example, shaking an infant hard can bring blindness, brain damage, or even death. One should not take the baby’s cry personally it only normal for small children to cry. You should always be realistic to the approach to different circumstances, seek help whenever necessary and, give yourself plenty of rest.
Helping your baby to sleep
An infant’s stomach can only hold enough for three to four hours. For this reason, constant feeding and waking is a normal occurrence for the first few weeks. It is never so early to teach the baby that nighttime is for sleeping and day time for play. This is effectively achieved by maintaining nighttime feeding as subdued as possible. One should never turn on the lights at night when the baby is sleeping or prolonging the late-night diaper change. During the day, one should occasionally wake the baby in the late afternoon and try playing with her.
The way to position the baby for sleep
An infant of the age of between 0-4 months should be placed on her back while sleeping as this safer as it prevents Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Since within the duration of the first six months of the baby’s’ life, that SIDS is more prevalent. It is also important to note that it is never safe to place your child on soft, porous surfaces such as pillows or quilts as this may block the baby’s airway and suffocate her. Therefore, firm mattresses covered by a sheet are recommended as argued by (Zwart & Ledebt, 2005). By three months, the baby weighs between 12-13 pounds is capable of sleeping between six to eight hours since their stomachs have now grown. In the case of this stage, if the child starts late-night wake-up, then the baby may be in a teething or development changes. Every parent should make it a habit of helping the baby doze off by giving them continuous stimulation.
Toddler is the age where children are learning to walk. This occurs at the age between 1-2 years. This is a very crucial age for a child. It is the stage between infancy and childhood. When a child is able to learn and grow in many ways. At this stage, children learn to walk, talk and solve problems that they are encountering at this stage. The main challenge at this stage for the child is learning to be independent. They try to learn doing things for themselves and, have their own ideas on things around them. At this stage is normally characterized by vigorous growth and change, mood swings and so negativity.
Though they will on many things, they are limited on skills. That’s the reason behind why they would often tend to misbehave. Toddlers with much energy and ideas’ they are eager to explore their environment. They feel so independent, while in the real sense, real sense they are very dependent. They are so troubled with their own needs and ideas. That’s the reason why at this stage they display a selfish nature to other people and other people. They feel so frustrated because they lack the language skills to express themselves. Therefore, they became inseparable from their parents and other whom they feel understands them.
They begin to take an interest in being toilet trained, and at the age of three, they are referred as preschoolers. This is the stage whereby, they are toilet trained, becoming more independent, and are developing verbal skills, they take a keen interest on the world around them. Their main aspects of growth being: physical, social, intellectual, and emotional.
At this point, their growth is less quickly compared to infancy. They also tend to eat less, but will eat frequently throughout the day. From time to time, they are capable of scribbling and can stand blocks (Rowe & Allison, 2010). They are able to drink from a cup but will do this will help from someone. At this stage, they are capable of walking around without support at 14 months. Many toddlers are in a position to walk backward and up steps by the time they are 22 months.
At the age, of two years now they have really grown, and they can separate things, and put them back together. For example, screwing and unscrewing lids. Their legs and arms are now strong for them to kick and throw balls and the other thing around. They also are in a position to stand on tip toes. They have, at this point developed the coordination of their body and now can run, climb on things, walk up and down the stairs or even dig; though risky. They feel the discomfort brought about by the soiled or wet diapers.
The social and emotional training
For one year olds, they are out to do most things independently; they very quickly forget the rules set by their parents as noted by (Rowe & Allison, 2010). High tempers and persistent tantrums become an everyday norm. Possessiveness and lack of willingness to share things with other children are common phenomena. They love playing by themselves or besides but dare not to play with those other children. Mostly at this stage, they always seek attention from their parents and other members of their families. They begin to express new emotions like shame, jealous pride or even affection. They want to be in constant company of their parents and in their absence they will tend to keep asking for them. They also suffer from rapid mood swings, and posses intense emotions but are usually very short-lived.
In the case, of the two-year olds, they often refuse to be assisted when doing things. The two year olds are more secure of themselves than the one year children. They begin to play simple pretend games. They normally play short and simple fantasy games, and do not involve others. They try to assert themselves by saying no or disagreeing with other people. At this stage, they continuously act in opposition of what they are told to do; rebellious. They are easily and quickly frustrated and will be seen imitating the behavior of adults and others.
This are those activities that toddlers are involved in, to show that the brain of the child is growing. In the case, of a one year old, their attention span is normally so short and, then becomes distracted by one thing or the other. They are so curious and what to know whatever is being done around them as noted by (Swanson, 2000). They try to combine words to form a sentence. Whenever they want something they always communicate by pointing at things that want. They are able to name body parts and pictures, many at times they imitates sounds that are familiar to them. They begin to involve a second person in pretend plays. They begin using the pronoun ‘me’ and ‘mine’ when referring to things that they believe is theirs. They end up using objects for intended use. They are always very active; since their imagination is also developing they always confuse what is real from what is imaginary.
In conclusion, the two year olds, they are capable of following simple directions. They object to represent other objects. They are also capable of using three or more words when conversing. They are capable of expressing their feelings and wishes. It becomes very difficult for them to make choices. Many at times they join in simple songs and, think of doing something before doing it. It is very important for parents to take their time and watch their children as they play, because it is through this that they are able to notice various differences in their child’s growth, be it, weight, or height or how they relate with other children. It is through this that they would be capable of noticing whether their children are growing normally or not.
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