Computer security refers to the detection and prevention of any unauthorized access to your computer as noted by (Himma, 2007, p.79). Detection process helps to determine whether some users tried to access your system. It is concentrates on the confidentiality, integrity, where only those authorized have the right to access that information and availability of the information to those who need it. Connection of personal computer to any network or Internet exposes it to malicious programs, stealing of valuable information like passwords by hackers or construction of DOS (Denial of Service) attacks that may limit computer user from access to websites and other services (Fragouli & Emina, 2006, pp. 125-128). A hacker on the other hand, is an intelligent person capable of creating codes, breaking into large networks and stealing confidential information, modifying and, corrupting programs to perform some tasks other than what its expected task according to (Holden, 2003, p.140). The aim of this study is to identify security threats home PC and techniques that the attacker uses to access the information.
Firstly, in the past, the domain name system found its use in providing different expandable systems. This system has to be integrated such that it does not allow phishing and spam in its network (Himma, 2007, p.89). The DNS are more vulnerable to attacks such as DDos and the cache poisoning. The DOS attacks are typically, observed in on web pages that exhibit top page ranking servers, such as the banks, institutions to some extent the credit cards gateways. The expansion of the Internet protocol also may cause danger to the Internet users. This calls for expansions of Internet protocol versions (IPv) so that they may provide packet switching of the Internet working. The expansion allows the eliminations of using the network address translation (NAT).
Essentially, subletting may be used to avoid the packet collision. The hackers would always make their systems assume the false negative of false positive. This happens on spam information in most cases. Spam would test to be false negative, yet in the real sense, it is not a spam. In addition, spam may also test to be false positive yet, it is not a spam. This makes the hackers to bypass the systems, thereby causing a security threat.
Examples of potential security threats to home PCs include Broadband Internet Connection; DSL and Cable Modem which affects both the home PC users and other operating system users (Holden, 2003, p. 145). They enhance unauthorized access from the Internet to a host network. Malicious codes and programs affect Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and contain virus, worms and Trojan horse, which endanger accessibility of data and information. Virus, which is a code created to something in your computer other than what was expected. Virus can delete all the information on hard drive and sometimes replicates itself which would corrupt the PC.
In addition, a worm on the other hand multiplies itself but, does not corrupt other files. Hackers also use virus hoax to give a warning for an individual not to open particular attachments through the Internet or, even send mails. Trojan horse on the other hand, makes the user believe that, a particular program is harmless but, it accesses a computer without the user knowledge. A Trojan horse does not replicate itself but delete files from the home PC. According to (Holden, 2003, p.143), in DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service), home PCs are used as a base for attacking other systems while Denial of service (DOS) result in crashing of the computer making it hard for the user to access it. Email spoofing impersonates a user to reveal confidential information since, it frauds the email from an illegal sender to appear as if it comes from a legal sender. Worms can also be spread to home PC through email attachments. Unsecured windows file sharing in Local Area Network (LAN) enhances spread of malicious programs and codes to other computers connected to the network (Levine &Shields, 2006, p. 279). Packet sniffing is used to represent data on the network and decodes the layers of file extensions making the user execute malicious codes.
Some of the techniques that are used by hackers to access unauthorized information include; pretexting where a pretext is created to make the user to reveal valuable information by engaging an individual to perform an action which is unlikely to be done under normal situation (Himma, 2007, p.124). An intruder prepares answers that are likely to be asked by the victim and uses an authoritative voice. In diversion theft, the user is compelled to give the information to other sources that disguise to appear like the true recipient.
In Phishing technique, an email is sent requesting for the verification of confidential information and appears to be like from the legal source; like a bank logo after which the user may disclose confidential information. In IVR (interactive voice response) or phone phishing, a user is prompted to call a certain source and, may be asked to enter particular details severally for verification purposes. The user would be put on bait with devices like, flash disks dropped at strategic points, with extremely catchy labels which, when used on home PC, it can affect the computer e.g. installation of malware. An attacker may use the phone to call different people claiming to be from a genuine source after which any person with such a need will fall to be the victim.
In conclusion, home users should be aware of the threats facing their home PCs and, should be alert and have knowledge of the security threats as noted by (Levine, &Shields, 2006, p.267). The internet service providers should also come with mitigations that are capable of counteracting these cyber crimes. This may be by thorough encryption of the content conveyed, and continuous surveillance of any abnormally (Fragouli & Emina, 2006, p. 128). These measures should curb how they are spread and, the appropriate measures that should be taken to fight against unauthorized access to their computers.