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This is a research report on Typhoons. The researcher attempted to find out the mechanism by which typhoon occur, effects of typhoons and effectiveness of human activities in response to typhoons. He used both primary and secondary sources to collect data. These included interviews, questionnaires, and documented materials. The finding revealed that three mechanisms are responsible for the formation and development of typhoons. These includes is monsoon troughs, Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough (TUTT), and a font. Effects of typhoons include heavy rains, storms, strong winds, and tornadoes, which lead to deaths and destruction of the environment. The researcher also found out that typhoons are predictable. People receive warnings prior to typhoon occurrence.

Introduction

Typhoons develop in Northwestern area of Pacific Ocean. A typhoon can be defined as a tropical cyclone, which is mature that occurs between 180 degrees and 100 degrees East of the Pacific Ocean. Official seasons for Typhoons have not been identified as the clones form all year round. Six conditions must be fulfilled, for Typhoon to form and develop. The sea surface temperatures ought to be warm and sufficient. There must be instability of the atmospheric conditions. The troposphere must have high humidity at the middle and lower levels. Coriolis force is also a requirement for low-pressure centre to develop. There must be pre-existing disturbance of low level, and finally, there must be wind shear at lower vertical (Sharkov, 2000, p. 67).

Most of the storms occur in June and November. They are at their minimum around May and December. The most affected countries by Typhoon include Philippines, China, and Japan. The deadliest typhoons usually occur in China, especially Southern China. The wettest typhoon occurred in Taiwan. The researcher, therefore, decided to carry out a research regarding Typhoons to determine how they occur, their impact, and the effectiveness of human resource response to such events.

Methodology

The researcher carried out his research between April and June 2011 to determine typhoon types, their effects, and effectiveness of human response. He used both secondary and primary methods of data collection. Under primary source of data, the researcher used interviews and questionnaires, which included questions of interest. He then administered them to Philippines who witnessed the recent Philippine Typhoon. These included six men and four women who answered the interview questions and who filled in the questionnaires. He ensured that he remained within the scope, to avoid irrelevant data. Secondary sources included documented data from Typhoon Research Department. Other sources included geography textbook, newspapers, Journals, and the internet. He compared the data from the various sources. These sources gave the researcher relevant data, which he later analyzed to help him make a research report (Dineen, 2006, p. 87).

Results

The researcher was able to collect data using the two main methods; primary and secondary data collection. Primary sources helped the researcher to obtain data regarding the occurrence of typhoons and its effects. Effects included heavy rains, strong winds, tornadoes and large storms. All these would lead to deaths of both human beings and animals. Plants are destroyed leading to famine afterwards. Secondary sources showed that typhoons occur through three main mechanisms. These included monsoon trough, Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough, and fonts.

Six preconditions must also be fulfilled, for a typhoon to form and develop. Typhoon research department was most helpful in giving this information. Textbooks, journal and other sources gave information regarding the effects of typhoons and human activities in response to typhoons. The researcher found out those typhoons can be predicted and that warnings come 18-24 hours before their occurrence. Citizens get advice on how to behave in case a typhoon occurs. The researcher was also able to identify the countries, commonly affected by typhoons. These included Philippines, Japan, and China.

Discussion

Formation mechanism

The researcher found that certain preconditions must be fulfilled for Typhoon formation. First, the sea surface temperatures ought to be warm and sufficient. There must be instability of the atmospheric conditions. The troposphere must have high humidity at the middle and lower levels. Coriolis force is also a requirement for low-pressure centre to develop. There must be pre-existing disturbance of low level, and finally, there must be wind shear at lower vertical. If the above preconditions happen, typhoon occurs. The most common mechanism of atmospheric disturbance is monsoon trough. This refers to “Inter Tropical Convergence Zone” (ITCZ) extension after the formation of cyclonic. ITCZ refers to low pressure trough, which occurs when Southeast and Northeast trade winds converge (Jakob & Hungr, 2005, p. 91).

Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough (TUTT) is yet another cause for the formation of Typhoon. The upper air is low according to nature, as compared to the surrounding environment. The low-pressure starts at the low level when it is warm compared to the surrounding environment. When the low Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough remains for several days over the seawater, it warms up, and it gets the characteristics of tropical. Once this happens, it gets down to the water surface and typhoon forms and develops. The other cause of typhoon formation and development is a front. A font comes over the tropical waters. Storms and showers occur when favorable winds and wind shear occur, bringing a typhoon. Monsoon trough, however, cause most typhoons in the Pacific Ocean (Davis, 2008, p. 79).

Effects of typhoons

Typhoons bring destructive impacts such as heavy rains, large storms, tornadoes, and strong winds. Human beings also are killed, lost or injured when typhoon occur. Flooding can drown people. It also sweeps away property and destroys houses. The strong winds and heavy rains destroy crops. At the same time, they cause soil erosion. Mudslides also occur which can be destructive. This leads to shortage of food, lack of medical care, limited access to infrastructure, among other effects. Typhoons also affect animals in that they get drowned. The environment destruction leaves animals with nothing to feed on, hence death. The smaller animals disappear, and the large animals die of hunger. When houses are destroyed, animals suffer since they will have nobody to take care of them. Animals become exposed to strong winds and heavy rains, which are destructive (Dineen, 2006, p. 64).

Effectiveness of human activities in response to typhoons

Typhoons are natural disasters. Human being, however, need to take precautions to avoid severe destruction. At least people are lucky because typhoons are predictable. The department of Typhoon research can predetermine occurrence of a Typhoon. This helps people prepare both physically and psychologically. People should keep the windows and doors closed throughout when there is a typhoon/ hurricane. Typhoon specialists say that the difference in pressure between the room and outside the room cannot make the house blow out.

Scientists announce warnings between 18- 24 hours. People living around the sea should, therefore, evacuate their houses as a safety measure. People ought to ensure that the water mains remain off after an aftermath of a typhoon. This is so because the water pressure becomes interfered with and another disaster could occur in the houses. It is also advisable to shift from the ground floor in case one cannot shift entirely. Nowadays, houses are being built in such a way that they can stand the strong winds and rains. All these human measures to tackle to typhoon issue prove to be quite effective though not in all situations. It is, therefore, crucial that people follow these precautions to prevent devastating effects of typhoons/ hurricanes (Hsieh, 2000, p. 71).

Conclusion

Typhoon form and develop in the Northeastern part of the Pacific Ocean. The strong ones occur in June and November. Three mechanisms exist that lead to the formation of typhoon. The first one is monsoon troughs, Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough (TUTT), and a font. However, these occur after the preconditions for the formation of typhoons. Typhoons cause strong winds, heavy rains, tornadoes, and heavy storms. These, in turn, affect human being, animals, as well as plants. Deaths occur since people and animals get swept away by the strong winds and rains. Plants die and soil erosion occurs, which further leads to future calamities due to lack of food and vegetation. Human beings perform a number of activities to prevent the devastating effects of typhoons. Warnings come prior to the occurrence of typhoons, and people get advice on how to behave; the areas to avoid, and the expectations thereafter. This prepares them physically and psychologically (Murnane, 2004, p. 56).

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