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Tourism is the travelling from one place to the other usually outside the normal environment either for recreational, leisure or business reasons. Tourism is currently a widespread global leisure activity and practice with millions of people touring different destinations yearly around the world to view heritage sites or even for vacation. In 2010, over 940 million international tourist arrivals were reported, representing 6.6% growth as compared to 2009. There is also local tourism where the local tourists from a country visit a tourist site within the same confines of the country. For tourism to grow, adequate plans need to be put in place with clear framework, visionary leadership and right resources.

Executive Summary

This essay paper discusses tourism as vibrant economic sector in the world earning several countries billions of money. The policy examines the importance of policy formulation and implementation, the critical factors required to ensure success of this sector, the input of both the public and private sectors, sustainability of tourism in the world, the challenges faced by the tourism industry both in the local and international markets, the impacts of tourism economies, communities and environments. This paper also analyses case studies Philippines, Kenya and Ghana discussing their general performance in relation to the international market. It also analyses the goals of tourism and how tourism contributes to economic development and broader regeneration process in the post-industrial cities.

Part A


The rational effective policy development is through Tourism Planning that involves the methods the policy makers embrace to achieve tourism development objectives. Planning can be physical  or organizational and can be at national, regional or local levels, integrating several stages that include, analysis of availability and quality of tourist assets , analysis of demand, forecast of visitor demand, marketing, human resource and  cost and financing of the tourism plan, development issues and marketing. Clear implementation plans must be in place leading to actualization of the plan (Cooper & Shepherd 1998).

Q. 2

Some of the critical factors that need to be taken care of to ensure success of tourism include; soundly-based interventions measures in tourism involving achievable techniques to promote control and manage tourism (Hinch  & Higham  2004).There is also need to promote a sector that can play an important catalytic role like the hotel industry with necessary components and basics of a successful tourism expansion. Reference point is another factor that need to be considered and can be used to evaluate the performance of the industry. In case there is underperformance, then mechanisms are put in place immediately to correct the mess. It is also very important to borrow vital lessons from developing tourism around the world that is, from countries that have experienced the same conditions to be able to foresee possible future occurrence. These factors assist in the national and local tourism development and regeneration in instances that the industry is performing below economic levels.

Q. 3

In Kenyan tourism, the roles of Public Sector are; formulating governing legislation, planning, coordination, policy making and financing. Some of the influences that have effects on the duties of this sector are the changing trends in the expectation s of tourists. Government can only provide legislation depending on the needs and expectations of the customers who in this case the tourists. International standards also influence the  policy making since international tourists who are usually the majority would like to have standard way of operation as far as the legislation is concerned to make their entry procedures uniform. (Jafari 2000).

Q. 4

Sustainability is a principle that ensures that tourism resources are not depleted but used in a way that conservers the resources. It includes; making optimum use of environmental resources that makes a key component in tourism development, upholding vital ecological processes while promoting conservation of culture and biodiversity.  It also promotes  socio-cultural legitimacy of host communities, conserves and protects their distinguished  and cherished cultural heritage and traditional values with  a view of contributing  to inter-cultural acceptance, understanding and tolerance  (Jafari 2000).Sustainability also  ensures that feasible long-term economic operations that  provides adequate socio-economic benefits like reliable employment and income-earning opportunities, community services to host populations and participating in  poverty mitigation activities. Sustainable tourism development is a continuous process that requires close monitoring to check the impacts of the performance to be able to timely generate preventive measures.  It therefore requires informed contribution of the stakeholders, including the political leadership for consensus building and to ensure that tourist needs are satisfied.

Q. 5

Ghana’s tourism sector faces a number of challenges ranging from,  poor marketing of Ghana as a tourist destination, low alertness of the potential of tourism as a feasible economic sector; lack of Tourism Brand, poor infrastructure particularly poor access roads to tourist heritage sites, insufficient skilled manpower, Inadequate government funding and lack of professionalism to improve service delivery. Other challenges include; lack of logistics, poor waste management, and inadequate corporate support, lack of favourable credit facilities developers who would want to venture in this sector, substandard quality of products and services, and the opinion that tourism is a high risk sector and inadequate marketing of tourism image abroad. There are also widespread road accidents on the Ghanaian roads. [1]

Q. 6

Policy making is an intense process that requires adequate planning, thus needs to be closely monitored. Implementation of the policies may face challenges especially when the proposed objectives are vague, lack of commitment from all stakeholders, inclusion of stakeholders who are an impediment to the operation of the key actors, the use of centralization of the implementation process and incomplete information regarding some goals. It must therefore be very clear on what source is needed, when to be accomplished, desired outcome, who is involved and finally the evaluation criteria for the implementation to be complete.

Q. 7

Cultural Tourism is a sustainable style of  tourism that include the use of  Historical sites, Museums, Theatres, Parks, Art Galleries and Architectural treasures. It involves the encouragement of local tourists to seek genuine experience with a distinguished and distinctive cultural and ethnic history, for example structures that point at the cultures of a people with historical significance in the museums and historical sites and identified with special characteristics. These special cultures create rejuvenation of the tourism drive among the locals, and stagnant tourism destinations to create employment and improve economic development including for Postindustrial cities that were abandoned. This regeneration will encourage local pride, foster greater understanding from the diversity, enhance entrepreneurial spirit, and reconstructs old assets leading to increased volumes of trade.


Q. 8

Foreign exchange earnings that include; the leakage of foreign exchange, gross earnings of foreign exchange used to attract more international tourists usually from the total holiday price,

collection of that foreign exchange spent in the country.

Government Revenue can earn a substantial amount of revenues from tourism, majorly improved by employing positive measures to encourage like use of selective taxes, sales

tax, which eventually encourages wider tourism sector, leading to expanded tax base, and therefore high revenues. Occasionally, the government can operate a dual tax structure where citizens pay a lower charge to that charged on foreign tourists. Other impacts include; employment local people, added demand for local food and crafts, destruction to the landscape: reduced vandalism, erosion, fires, disturbance to livestock, Tourists majorly visit to see the scenery and wildlife leading to more pressure to safeguard habitats. It also leads, increase of local cost of goods expensive because tourists will pay more, shops also stock products for tourists and not everyday goods needed by locals, demand for more shops and hotels, jobs are mainly seasonal.

Q. 9

In Kenya tourism organizational arrangement has a lot of influence on the policy development.  The traditional and religious beliefs of the nation determine the level of social relations and the type of policies to be developed (Nyeki 1993). The availability of infrastructure also determines the amount of funding for further development. Availability of natural resources also dictates the number of visitors that can be accommodated within a region at a time. 



Q. 10.

Tourism promotes infrastructure development like extension of electricity power lines, communication networks, improved roads network and development of expertise the rural areas as a result of tourism. Increase in money circulation lead to improved economic activities. The tourism also offer employment opportunities to the locals and encourage exchange of cultures.

Q. 11

The political class in the world usually tries to make policies governing tourism in the countries having that they are discharged with the legislative responsibilities in making ministry policies that govern tourism.

Q. 12

Local participation encourages environmental conservation of the local heritage sights by reducing pollution, erosion and the biodiversity. It is therefore very important to educate the locals to protect their sources of livelihood which are the local tourist sites that offer them employment and revenues generated from the sale of goods to the tourists.

Q. 13

Tourism attracts many people from diverse cultural backgrounds with different skills and abilities. It also attracts housing, hotel development due to the high demand of accommodation in such areas and government project development like construction of roads to open up the rural areas. This diversification results into knowledge synchronization and improved revenue collection for the government and the locals leading to improved life standards for the locals.

Q. 14

Tourism Policy formulation is an important process that requires stable leadership, adequate planning, thus needs to be well coordinated to ensure far reaching policies are stipulated. Implementation of the policies may face challenges especially when the proposed objectives are vague leaving rooms for speculation, lack of commitment from all the tourism stakeholders, inclusion of stakeholders who are an impediment to the operation of the key actors, the use of centralization of the implementation process that may result into some aspects overlooked and issue of incomplete information regarding some goals. It must therefore be very clear on what source is required, when the task is to be accomplished, desired outcome, who is involved and the evaluation criteria for the implementation process to be complete


Philippines in  1986, under Executive Order Numbers 120 and 120-A signed by President currently Department of Tourism was reorganized and renamed as Philippine Convention and Visitors Corporation. In 2002, the introduced one of its most successful tourism promotion under  the platform  Visit Philippines 2003, under Secretary Richard J. Gordon and the passage of the Tourism Act of 2009.  The law offers a new structure for tourism administration through restructuring of the Department and its affiliate agencies like Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority (TIEZA, putting in place of a Tourism Development Fund, and the establishment of several specialized tourism zones all over the country (The Philippines 1995). The department also includes; Office of Product Development, office of tourism standards, tourism coordination, Internal audit service among others.

Q. 16

The major goals of tourism policy include become a leader in attracting tourists to this region, improve the quality of life, tourism to be the principal development factor in our community, develop an ecologically viable tourism program and major economic growth of the region. Some of the major difficulties experienced by include; negative representations of the country by foreign media like BBC, Aljazeera CNN  since the Asian financial crisis of 1997 (The Philippines 1995).This has seriously barred many tourists from visiting the country.

Transportation is a problem without elaborate cab system leaving tourist settle for unreliable taxis that inflate fares up when experiencing tourist’s influx. Government has also not improved the transport system Again, the government's lack of precaution and stress on improving means of transport and dealing with these Taxi drivers are also to blame. There is also insecurity for the pedestrians and occasionally the local administration and Tourist leaders could thus be accused for failing to notifying tourists of the non-pedestrian culture and for not disbanding these gangs.

Q. 17

 This shows interdisciplinary analyses of how tourism, leisure, sport, and the border cultural segment play key roles in the regeneration of urban and rural environments. The chapters relates policy making and urban planning to sociology, geography and business economics planning in urban studies and  depend on the use of leisure, cultural values  and tourism to regenerate the initially diminishing  industrial cities and regions (Mak 2008).

Q. 18

This statement is not valid because communities usually depend on the politically influential progress, where ideas are shared and involve community participation, which immediately produce direct returns to the community residents and positively impacts of local economy. There are several factors demystifying this statement one being; community members usually willing to collaborate with each other, as a basic principle for community integration and as a unit participates in the tourism development that profit all equally. The second reason is that community members can achieve equal sharing of revenues and employment tasks, making work easier for all of them. Since the individual ownership is limited, many progress resolutions are made by the tourism enterprises local residents, having comparatively high degree of control and management to develop collective economy. Lastly, community participation promotes integration of traditional culture with heterogeneous culture. Community integration between the locals with common mutual drives to improve their earning and life standards will always come together and trust participatory process.  On the other hand the tourism industry in many regions of the world usually have  human and environmental costs like  displacement of a peoples to create more space for the wildlife, thus undermining rights to land ownership and livelihoods, the generation of waste and pollution, and the unsustainable use of water.

Q. 19.

European Union Involvement into tourism champion Framework policy that encourages community policy where tourism policies are centrally generated and applies to all the member countries. This is because in their view, distinctive policies across the EU region without proper coordination functioned against the competitiveness of the sector. The Union also advocates Common Promotion and marketing of the several tourism destinations in the international market.

Q. 20

Event- led tourism involves the movement of individuals from one area to the other majorly during the common events like during world sport calendar days. Currently, athletes are in Daegu for the world athletics championship where some may take the opportunity to tour the heritage site areas. When such event are hosted in the urban centers it assists regenerate tourism in that area and improve economic activities since the visitors will need accommodation, food and other products. This will eventually improve the lifestyle of the people.

Q. 21

Tourism planning that involves the methods the policy makers embrace to achieve tourism development objectives. Planning can be physical or organizational and can be at national, regional or local levels, integrating several stages that include, analysis of availability and quality of tourist assets, analysis of demand, forecast of visitor demand, marketing, human resource and cost and financing of the tourism plan, development issues and marketing, clear implementation plans must be in place leading to actualization of the plan.

Q. 22

Maldives Third tourism Master plan 2007-2011 emphasizes on the development of tourism industry along the areas of sustainability, socially responsibility and embracing environmentally friendly tourism practices. The plan also emphasizes establishment of tourism coherent with nature, facilitating and improving private sector investment, forming greater employment opportunities, developing human resources and diversifying markets and products. [2]This plan is also formulated as a ‘living document’ for it to be able to respond to prompt variations in the Maldivian economy and worldwide trends in the industry.it as well stipulates strategies and actions in relation to the performance procedures in attaining the goals  as Plan (Veal 2000). All these strategies respond to the criticisms of traditional tourism master planning.

Q. 23

Economic challenges with inconsistent tourist flow. Public resources is in most cases viewed as being more than the likely long-term joint losses that end up from the decline of such resources, which means that there is minimal incentive for single actors irrespective of whether they are governments, voted officials, or single operators, to invest or involve in safeguarding or preservation for more sustainable development (Mak 2008).

Part B

Q. 1

Customer service is at the centre of service delivery being that this service industry. The service must be timely, neat, quality with value added service. This ensures that no customer stays unattended to, to receive value for money. The customer needs to be in a position of communicating well in all the major foreign languages to be able to handle international customers with ease to make them feel relaxed while being sure that their needs will be fully attended to.

Q. 2

Prior Information gives the management a chance to prepare in advance for the international arrivals. This makes the organizations to avail all the required items according to the prior specifications of the customer ranging from cab services, accommodation, meals plus any other additional information and to be able to effectively communicate with the subordinates.

Q. 3

Some of the challenges faced by the offices managing tourist information include; challenges associated with the management of organizations information operating globally with interconnection issues, how to effectively communicate corporate in their own independent direction and challenges related to constant innovations that is attained through inventive problem solving.  These challenges occasionally slow down the operation process.

Q. 4

The challenges include, the need for comprehensive research to understand the prospects of tourists, more organized marketing and advertising campaigns while mentioning international truths, diversity and development of native tourism, human resource approaches for  attracting and retaining qualified staff, tourism infrastructure, efficient transportation systems and widening and embracing sustainable tourism (Middleton 1994). Conflict of interest involves providing all the additional demand and still maintains productivity.

Q. 5

One challenging role for managers of cultural attractions is the ability to impress and attract the international tourist to choose their sites as the destination points majorly if it in a region not well known of with bad name due to the fallen initial venture. In the management of museums, many managers face the challenge of completion since there are several cultural tourism centres stocking almost the same items and sceneries.

Q. 6

Tourism industry is about customer service since it deals with people who want value for their money. The customers must therefore be accorded quality work and with value added service. The human resource needs to be well selected and strained, skilled with necessary zeal to make a difference in the tourist life. This will ensure that the current customers are retained and in turn attract more tourists.

Q. 7

More visitors are getting concerned on the local transportation system, shopping opportunities, cleanliness, sports activities, conformity to hygiene rules, accessibility of the destination from the city and tourist information, cultural and artistic activities (Middleton 1994). Accommodation services, food and beverage services, cultural val­ues, historic sites, nature, appropriateness for family holidays, personal safety and hospitality of the local population had higher satisfaction, com­munication with the local population.


Q. 9

Accommodation is a key sector of tourism that need close attention. The entrepreneur will automatically face competition challenge from the more established service providers. They must intensely market the facility while striving to meet the standards set in the market. Inadequate capital may hamper expansion for the business premises.

Q. 10

Sustainable development will ensure that the tourism resources within the EU are fully utilized to perform to optimal level. This will make the common policy making be diversified for every member to customize the policies relevant to the in their specific niche and not to use common marketing techniques that may sideline one area.

Q. 11

Flagship visitor attraction is the construction of buildings in the urban centre’s hosting events for the attraction of the tourists. It is becoming very popular in the current world for art presentations, music films and is used as catalyst to tourism. Flagship benefits a lot on the local market thus giving it strength even at the times of low international arrivals. The entry prizes are also affordable even to the locals. Flagship provides leisure opportunities for programs that are best aired in an enclosed room like the movies.

Q. 12

Public sector can support flagship by offering financial services from the financial institutions like the banks, provision of security by the government security arms, the IT technical knowhow by IT experts and medical services. The public transport sector also supports flagship by moving people to such venues.


Tourism is very important global economic sector that earns millions of cash to the economy of the world. It is currently a widespread global leisure activity and practice with millions of people touring different destinations yearly around the world to view heritage sites or even to vacation with very diverse attractive activities ranging from the cultural heritage, national parks, public beaches, museums, cultural activities and events from the local tourism sector among others. For this sector to fully develop and be successful, international and local tourism policies need to be developed and be well implemented among other several critical factors affecting both private and public sectors. Currently there are a lot of changes in the trends of tourism in the whole world, bring about challenges thus every tourism organization need to adopt the new changes so that they can remain afloat.


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