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This research paper studies the basics of humanities; how and when did humanism began? It further studies Renaissance Humanism during fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the literary work during that time. It further studies the cultural and philosophical movement which swept across Europe during that time which led to the modern era, ending the era of middle ages is known as Renaissance Humanism.

For my study, I referred to Kraye’s book Renaissance Humanism which was first published in 1996 and discusses the origin of Renaissance Humanism in Europe, especially the Italian humanists’ contribution in translating the ancient Roman and Greek work related to art and literature of ancient times.

Kreis article on Renaissance Humanism also helped me clarifying key points of humanism, their philosophy and school of thought and how did they worked their way up so that their views are known and widely accepted by the society.

During 1400 A.D. to 1650 A.D. the secularism philosophy stimulated with the era when people and nations began favoring the pagan traditions again and were diverted to gain respect and worldly pleasures. This period’s intellectual and literary currents and their social philosophy which is considered to be the most predominant, is referred to as Humanism (Kreis, 2000).

The cultural and philosophical movement swept across Europe during fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth century which lead to the modern era, ending the era of middle ages is known as Renaissance Humanism (Kraye, 1996).

Due to the emergent secular view of life it resulted in zeal for the tradition; growth of luxury and prosperity, trade expansion, and growing social contacts attracted more interest in the pleasures of the world although they had formal adherence to Christianity. Therefore, humanists gave birth to classical writers who revealed the attitude of secular system and similar kind of social values (Kreis, 2000).

Amongst the common outline of those scholarly interests and their mental attitudes gathered under the rubric humanism, historians agreed that the humanists’ mentality stand between the contemporary scientific and their critical attitude, and medieval supernaturalism. According to Medievalist, Humanism is the fatal product of the middle ages (Kreis, 2000).

Modern historians’ view humanism as the “germinal period of modernism”, therefore, it is assumed that the Renaissance man lived between medieval Christian matrix and scientific concepts. Therefore the man of the Renaissance is suspended from both, reasons and faith, because he does not believe in homogeneous point of view which determined the significance of each phenomenon, and he is yet to find security for his life, social principle stability and system of scientific concepts (Kreis, 2000).

The main focus of humanism is the rights of human beings, that is, they should be praised for the work they have done and their achievements. Humanists, therefore, produced literary work on ancient methodologies and their arts so that they can be remembered for their great work during that time (Kraye, 1996).

The Renaissance Humanism was first introduced in Italy due to its connections with ancient Rome which is known for its artistic work and culture. Italians believed that they are the descendents of Romans therefore they felt the need to study the culture of their forefathers and their ancestors (Kraye, 1996).

Until sixteenth century, there were no political thinkers produced due to the humanist’s movement because the Renaissance humanists were not engaged with politics till then. They were keen to accept professions in which they became bureaucrats, diplomats, teachers, courtiers etc.  It was because most of the ancient literature was lost or was written in Greek which they require translating so that it can be reproduced and brought forward to be recognized by the worldly nations (Kraye, 1996).

The Renaissance Humanism was first introduced in Italy due to its connections with ancient Rome which is known for its artistic work and culture. Italians believed that they are the descendents of Romans therefore they felt the need to study the culture of their forefathers and their ancestors (Kraye, 1996).

The literary work they produced at that time on politics was not intended for focused audiences. They were more interested in producing literary work on “ancient traditions of moral-rhetorical” through which they desire to reform individuals, such as aristocrats, merchants and professional, and their society (Kraye, 1996).

During fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, humanists changed the intellectual world which helped them to bring reforms in political science. Although, humanists were unable to produce any high ranked political thinkers as yet but during sixteenth century they produced two high ranked politicians in Europe named “Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas More” whose literary work and writings exposed the tensions of contemporary political view and characteristics dilemmas (Kraye, 1996).

There were two views and types of reformers. One believed that by reforming individuals they will be able to reform their institutions and the others believed that by reforming their institutions they will be able to reform the individual values. Many humanists began taking part in political affairs so that they may serve both purposes i.e. to reform individuals by reforming institutions and to reform institutions by reforming individual values (Kraye, 1996).

Renaissance was the age of oligarchs and tyrants; it was the time when rulers had questionable titles which were illegitimate. Therefore, the humanists’ efforts were devoted to reforming individuals during fourteenth and fifteenth century so that they can later reform their institutions (Kraye, 1996).

The cultural and philosophical movement swept across Europe during fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth century which lead to the modern era, ending the era of middle ages is known as Renaissance Humanism (Kraye, 1996).

The main focus of humanism is the rights of human beings, that is, they should be praised for the work they have done and their achievements. Humanists, therefore, produced literary work on ancient methodologies and their arts so that they can be remembered for their great work during that time (Kraye, 1996).

The Renaissance Humanism was first introduced in Italy due to its connections with ancient Rome which is known for its artistic work and culture. Italians believed that they are the descendents of Romans therefore they felt the need to study the culture of their forefathers and their ancestors (Kraye, 1996).

Humanists first became bureaucrats, diplomats’, teachers, courtiers etc., and produced literary work to influence individuals’ behavior, their perception and views so that they may change the system to reward those who take active part in building a society (Kraye, 1996).

Most humanists’ were the believers of paganism while there were few others who did not believed in any god as they argue that religion is far from any social affairs.  Amongst the common outline of those scholarly interests and their mental attitudes gathered under the rubric humanism, historians agreed that the humanists’ mentality stand between the contemporary scientific and their critical attitude, and medieval supernaturalism. According to Medievalist, Humanism is the fatal product of the middle ages (Kraye, 1996).

Modern historians’ view humanism as the “germinal period of modernism”, therefore, it is assumed that the Renaissance man lived between medieval Christian matrix and scientific concepts. Therefore the man of the Renaissance is suspended from both, reasons and faith, because he does not believe in homogeneous point of view which determined the significance of each phenomenon, and he is yet to find security for his life, social principle stability and system of scientific concepts (Kraye, 1996).

Until sixteenth century renaissance humanists’ were not associated with politics though they did produce some literary work but it was not intended for the focused group. However, these and other literary work changed the intellectual community’s perception and in sixteenth century two high ranked humanist politicians made valuable contributions to the humanists’ view of political sciences (Kraye, 1996).

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