The goal of a research project is to establish facts, prove new ideas, and solve new or existing problems, using scientific methods. The main purpose is discovering and then interpreting what you have discovered. One needs to develop systems and methods of human knowledge as well as scientific issues. The results of a research project help the researcher or the in coming up with reliable conclusion from his study. The researcher must make sure that he has accomplished his goals while giving his results.
Causation is said to exist when the researcher identifies that a change in a given variable that was measured, directly brought (caused) a change in the other variable. An association on the other hand exists between two variables when a change in one variable coincides or is parallel to the change in the other variable. Association is also referred to as correlation or co variation. Correlation can be either positive or negative. It can also be either proportionate or disproportionate.
There are several potential sources of bias and lurking variables in a research project. To understand this, we shall look at the different types of bias. There is intervention bias that mainly occurs in the type of research that compares two groups rather than individuals. The most common intervention bias include, co-intervention bias, timing bias, withdrawal bias, proficiency bias, contamination bias and compliance bias.
The other type of bias is the measurement bias. This occurs as a systematic error that mainly occurs while collecting the required data. These biases include expectation bias, instrumental bias, lack of sensitivity bias, memory and recall bias, verification and attention bias.
The other type of bias is selection bias. This is where the researcher compares two different groups. Such differences automatically influence the results seen by the researcher. The common types of this bias include no respondent bias, non-equivalent groups and referral bias.
The principles of a research design are three. The researcher must identify similar groups that have similar characteristics. This reduces irrelevant variations that are already know between the units. It thus allows greater precision while estimating the source of variation in the study. Comparison is yet another principle in a research design.
Although it is hard to reproduce measured results in an exact manner, it is important to compare against a scientific, standard or the treatment that is traditional and has been used as the baseline to base your outcomes on. The other principle is the use of experiments (factorial experiments. Such experiments are efficient when it comes to evaluation of the independent variables and interaction of other several factors.
There are several types of graphs that the researcher can use to represent his data. Graphs help in showing distribution and comparisons. They can be generated using spreadsheet, Microsoft excel and other tools. When representing proportions and percentages, the researcher can use the pie charts. The researcher should make sure that he does not compare more than two variables in a pie chart for the sake of readability.
Scatter plots are yet another type of graphs. These are composed of individual dots which represents a specific event’s value. When you cluster the dots together, you imply correlation. However when the dots are scattered randomly, there is no correlation that can be identified.
Line graphs are also types of graphs. They imply the relationship between variables that are quantitative. On the X-axis, the independent variables are plotted and on the Y-axis, we plot the dependent variable. The other common types of graph are the bar graphs. These come in either vertical or horizontal, multiple or sliding bar graphs. The multiple bar graph shows complex information unlike the other two types of bar graphs.
The principles for the utilization and care of vertebrate animals used in testing, research and training are several. These have been given by the U.S government. The first principle states that transportation of animals should be done in accordance t with the Animal Welfare Act and any other applicable laws. The other principle is that the procedures regarding animals must be considered of relevance to both human as well as animal health, the good of the society and advancement of knowledge. Species, quality and the number of animals must be of valid results. Computer stimulation and mathematical models should be considered as well as the systems of “vitro” biological.
When using an animal for test, research, or training, care should be taken and there must be no or the pain on the animal should be minimal. There should be avoidance of distress, discomfort or even pain. Scientific practices must be applied during the procedures. It is important to note, according to the principles that the pain that can occur to human beings can as well occur in animals.
Appropriate sedation or anesthesia should be administered in procedures that could be harmful. At the end of the procedure, the animals should be killed painless fully in case it necessitates. This usually happens when the minimal cannot survive after either the training or the research. The living conditions of the animals should be appropriate. The animals should be kept in well-ventilated rooms, they should not be congested and care including veterinary services must be offered. Finally, the personnel handling the animals must be qualified and experienced in handling the procedures. Proper training must be done on those personnel on humane handling of the animals and the laboratory use of the animals during the tests in conducting the research.