A good understanding of the research work is achieved by applying good research methods so that one can come up with a good paper. At the same time, one will be able to critically evaluate the existing research and data. This will allow putting an evidenced-based research into practice. One also gets equipped with the best tools to use and analyze qualitative and quantitative methods which are key points in research. With the help of these skills, one will be able to solve many problems in research, especially when it comes to processing information, applying basic research methods, and being able to improve personal learning performance in time management. This is the key line that will encourage one to become more professional and ethical in their practice. In this context, we are going to analyze the research article “Buy your home and feel in control. Does home ownership achieve the empowerment of former tenants of social housing?”
Summary of the article
This paper puts forward the idea that encouraging the ownership of homes can play an important role in the housing policy in many countries. This happens due to the fact that the policy will be expected to produce some positive effects on an individual and society and, finally, an overall beneficial effect on the whole country. The paper will focus on the Netherlands and looks at the effect of home ownership on former tenants of social rented houses. The core point that is being considered in this paper is whether housing ownership increases one’s sense of freedom and security, sense of control over one’s life, and an individual’s self-esteem. When the facts presented here will be analyzed. In case they are considered to produce positive results, it can be concluded that housing can be used to empower people. This idea is not new and it has already been practiced by the Dutch, since in the Netherlands, houses are sold in order to empower citizens with the freedom of choice. In a survey of telephone results conducted in Holland, it has been indicated that 535 people have decided to buy their social rented dwellings and other 602 participants have never wanted to buy their own homes. Finding out the difference between the two groups of people with regard to empowerment was the next question. This was viewed by the scale of perceived control over their lives, their self-esteem, and the housing empowerment-related feeling that could be expressed by the respondents who were former tenants in both groups.
It has been established that the home owners got a higher score in the category of control over their life than the tenants. They also scored very highly in the category of the housing-related empowerment. On the other hand, they scored low on the scale of self- esteem. These factors were the key parameters among other attributes that could have been researched. The basis for this research is that in different countries, there are wide varieties of policies that make citizens work to their disadvantage. This research will, therefore, be able to point out the advantages of having a citizen-friendly policy that will encourage people to own homes, thus, becoming more secure and feeling empowered. Apart from this, people will also be empowered by the policies that promote education, self-sufficiency, welfare, employments, and, finally, housing. All these will enable people to gain control over their lives and make them more self-sufficient. This is defined as empowerment. Buying homes is associated with empowerment in this article. Empowered people take responsibility for their life and neighborhood and become better citizens. Empowered individuals will be able to participate in the development of society which will grow and finally lead to the development of the nation. They are democratic and also patriotic. They are self-confident, self-sufficient, and law-abiding, and they feel secure in the social and political environments in which they live. There are quite a number of positive reasons that are mentioned in the paper about the benefits of empowerment. According to this paper, the research involved collection of data which were retrieved from phone calls. The research was organized so that both buyers and tenants could ask questions and get answers from questionnaires, which were then interpreted to get more detail. Buyers and tenants have appeared to be the same in many aspects. However, individual groups were asked some specific questions concerning different issues. For buyers, these questions included their choice of the mortgage, while the tenants’ questions included reasons for not buying homes that justified their decision, as well as the delimitations and opportunities they had put into consideration.
The researchers devised a way in which they could determine the psychometric scale of the decisions undertaken by the respondents. The respondents had to choose from five options according to their mindset, which ranged from completely agreeing to completely disagreeing on every option. This technique is referred to as the Likert scale, which is mainly used in the social psychological research.
What is more, these articles include a comprehensive discussion of the data which indicate that the research is well-organized and accurately carried out. It provides an explanation of the variation and correlation that exist between the empowerment scale for both the buyers and the tenants. All these values were determined at a confidence interval of 95% or p < 0.005 for both the buyers and the tenants. Also, the data were analyzed through a multivariate analysis, which considered the effect of the scale of empowerment when everything else was kept constant. In conclusion, this article seeks to underline the fact that buying a home is a factor of empowerment for the tenants. This was based on the scales of empowerment, freedom, security and privacy, perceived control of life, and, finally, self- esteem. There was a general conclusion that the buyers became more empowered than the tenants. There exist some differences between the tenants and the buyers in the housing tenure system. However, both the tenants and the buyers feel safety and security. They also feel that their privacy will not be infringed. For the tenants, the feeling of privacy is already guaranteed by the rent agreement which gives them the right to do what they want without fear of disturbance. The second conclusion was drawn that home ownership is not in any way associated with the control over their life, which is mainly influenced by education, income, ethnicity, and people’s childhood experience. On the contrary, the major factor is a person’s social class. The feeling of control is strongly associated with the feeling of empowerment. The home owners also scored very low when it came to the self-esteem scale. This seemed a contradiction with other research, which showed the same or higher scores when it came to self-esteem. This was a short-term analysis which showed positive results. However, if a long-term effect is needed, more advanced parameters will be necessary to take effect in finding out the influence of home ownership during a long period of time.
Criticism of the methodology
The methodology applied here involved the use of data that had already been presented. This is ethical in research because in any problem identification, it is always good to look for research that has already been done somewhere else in order to justify and fill the gaps, which may have never been done. ‘Some of this research may have already been done and doing the same is never the best thing in research’ (Hek & Moule 2001, p.53). This research is also targeted at the right group of people. The former tenants would have had a good opportunity to buy homes, but they must have had one reason or another never to buy homes. Whatever response they provided, it was aptly an honest response. This paper also tries to compare three groups which included 286 respondents, who were buyers that bought their rented homes at the market price. It also considered 249 buyers that had bought their homes in a social ownership. Finally, 602 tenants who had turned down the offer to acquire homes. The research that was carried out was also compared to a Dutch research that had been already done, and, hence, it prevented the bias of using the data that had only been collected by the research group. The interview over the phone was a random sample of available addressees. Some of them could be accessed, while others could not be accessed for one reason or another, which was all considered. This ensured the accuracy of the data collected and the privacy of the people who participated in the research. ‘Ethically, the information provided by the respondents is always supposed to be private’ (Becker and Bryman 2004, p.64). The data collected were also interpreted with the help of a computer assisted telephonic interviewing (CATI). This enabled the researchers to adapt the order of the questions and answers that were provided by the respondents. They recorded a total of 535 buyers that accounted for 40.6%, and 602 tenants accounting for 41.5%. The questionnaire was also unified so that they were able to analyze the responses of all the participants in different groups, and, hence, raise the precision of the answers. The questionnaire that was used was also very efficiently designed so that the researchers were able to collect all the required information from a single interview.
It must be noted here that the interviews were conducted twice, which was done to reconfirm the questions that they had discussed, as well as to determine if there were any changes in the decision about the housing policy. This is the best way, as it enables the researchers to be very precise in their analysis; moreover, they were able to come to the right conclusions and give recommendations, which could be done with the help of the survey that had been conducted. The data were then subjected to a univariate analysis, after which the researchers used a multivariate analysis for the same data. Statistical tools were then used in the identification of the variance, correlation, and the regression analysis at 95% confidence interval. This findings were very well-analyzed, which made it possible for us to interpret the collected data. The data indicated that there is no correlation between the housing related empowerment and the feeling of control. On the other hand, the housing related empowerment was connected very significantly but slightly with self-esteem. The buyers had a score of 0.177, while the tenants had a score of 0.113. This finding made it also possible for researchers to establish that people who have a more positive personal image are more likely to feel more control of their way of life, and they seem to be more in charge of their way of living. This was a higher score for the buyers than it was for the tenants. The analysis of other factors that also influence this was taken into consideration as well. These other factors include social factors. These attributes reveal the differences between the buyers and the tenants in many ways. The research data method was used and quite a large number of relevant factors were taken into consideration. This allowed the researcher to answer all the questions and be able to explain the differences between various factors in the paper. A good research method should always be helpful in addressing all aspects of the questions that need to be answered. This is because any research is always a complex process. The main objective of any research is to analyze a problem and find the best solution to it. For this to take place, various data must be collected and they as well must be very well interpreted in their right way in order to answer the research questions within the data. This paper was able to identify the answer to the research question, which associates with empowerment the home owners rather than the tenants. This paper also analyzed some data on the linear regression model, which made it possible for the researchers to find out the degree of empowerment as related to the three empowerment scales and including other various factors. This was the predictor of empowerment. The interpretation of the regression values is one of the most important points in these data. Above all, this paper was in all aspects very comprehensive and precise in the description of the research paper and in answering the research questions.
In summary, this research method allowed explaining the following factors. ‘The materials and the methods with the help of which the data were collected have been presented in a more synchronized manner and in a way that makes it clear to follow on the research paper’ (Bell 1993, p.72). The study design has been also mentioned, and it involved the use of telephone interviews, which enabled the researchers to ask questions and collect their responses to various questions that the respondents were asked. The study design is not a new method and it has been used elsewhere in collecting information along with the same line as being described in this paper. This, therefore, tries to justify the usefulness of this research method for the purpose of this research paper. In its results, it is possible to list the parameters that are essential in answering all research questions. This makes the research questions understandable and precise while retrieving important information that is required in understanding this research paper. This paper is also multi-dimensional in its approach, as it made it possible to identify the research that has been already done. Then it provided a report on its findings, which it compares with the present findings in this paper. It is also possible to carry out this research within a given timeline. The data were collected two times in order to avoid erroneous data collection, as well as to assert the responses provided by the researcher of this paper. This paper goes on to identify the statistical tools to which the data were subjected in order to give meaning to the data that have been collected by the researcher. It must be also mentioned that this paper did not only cite very relevant sources of information as it was required for this paper, but it also explained the content of the sources, making them applicable to this paper. This is what makes a good research paper. ‘The message in the data has been explained in a simple language that can be understood. This is the aim of the research to make it clear for the people who read it so that they will be able to interpret their findings and information’ (Denscombe 2002, p.114). The researcher has also tried to explain the model of application in this research paper, which makes it relevant. The researcher has also tried to compare the model to other places. However, I must note that the use of the telephony communication was not the best option. The researchers could also use the computer assisted telephony machine that could record the responses of the tenants and the buyers because people in most cases speak differently and will also be able to provide their answers in writing. Due to this fact, the researchers could use the telephone and also provide the respondents with questionnaires so that they could give their answers in writing. After that, the written information could be compared with what they provided during the telephone communication. Also, with regard to the recorded responses, the interpreters of the answers may have understood them differently, which could be checked by asking different people to interpret the same words. There is no doubt that the people may provide opposite interpretations of the same notions. Above all, there was a well-structured discussion of the methodology. However, in no context have I been able to get to know what hypothesis they were testing in this paper. ‘Though being not well highlighted within the structure of the article, one can understand that they are getting the background of the paper, the significance of the study, and the problem statement or description from the introduction’ (Coghlan & Brannick 2001, p.213). There is justification of the study, which was illustrated as the research questions in the paper. Also, the hypothesis is not mentioned anywhere in the paper.
‘The researchers came up with several points which can be found in the results section of the paper, which is always the rule’ (Black 1993, p.57). The paper shows that there was no correlation between the housing related empowerment and the feeling of control. The housing related empowerment is connected very significantly though slightly with the feeling of self-esteem. The buyers had a score of ρ=0.177, while the tenants had a score of ρ=0.113. This finding also allowed to establish that people who have a more positive personal image have higher chances of feeling more control of their way of life. Also, they appear to be more in charge of their way of living. This score was higher for the buyers than it was for the tenants. The analysis of other factors that influence this was also put into consideration. These other factors included social factors. What is more, the perceived control was not in any way found to be related to the purchase of a home. Moreover, becoming a home owner was negatively correlated with self-esteem, while all other factors were kept constant. Also, the buying of a home has never been indicated to raise the perceived control of individuals over the lives. However, those who believed they had control over their lives were very likely to buy and own a home for themselves. In addition, the home buyers had lower self-esteem in comparison to the tenants, even when other social and economic factors were also considered. This was a contradiction with the previous research done in other regions, which showed the same or higher results. This paper recommends that the data obtained can only be used for short-term considerations. However, in order to observe some long-term relationships between empowerment and ownership, longitudinal research needs to be conducted so that one can make necessary findings.
The paper recommends that the findings in this paper should not be taken into consideration from the perspective of discarding the sale policies. However, the aim of the paper is to provide a good reasoning to empower the tenants in a broad sense so that they can consider buying homes by building up equity and freedom of choice which are very realistic goals for people. These attributes reveal the differences between the buyers and the tenants in many ways. Above all, according to the findings of this paper, the answer is positive, meaning that home ownership empowers people.
In conclusion, this paper addresses all the scientific tools that are necessary to make this research paper be termed a good research paper. The only problem is the research title which is very long and formulated as a question. A good research title in most cases is supposed to have few words, and it also makes it easy for people to understand the content of the paper. Undoubtedly, the title must catch the reader’s attention. This paper has tried to answer all the research questions that it was addressing through the study research design that has been used. The introduction was perfectly presented, except for the missing hypothesis of the paper. The data and the methods were also very well illustrated and this was the basis for answering the entire question that was discussed in the paper. The literature review section was very well presented and excellently cited with good sources that contributed to the good content of the paper and were of great interest. Quite a large number of sources show that the research was actually done and provided comparisons at some points that were really illustrative. The discussion was also well presented in this paper. Moreover, answers to all the research questions were given in the paper. There was an explanation of why they were the way they were and why they were somehow different from the previous research that had already been done. There are recommendations and finally the conclusion of the paper. Above all, the references have been all presented as required and quite a large number of sources have been used. In my opinion, this is a perfect research paper that is written very well.