Globalization is the integration of countries for a common objective. There are several goals that can make nations to unite. Some of them include economy, information technology, education, politics and social ambitions. According to Allende, globalization normally involves the abolition of barriers that frighten international relations (Allende 10). Theses hindrances comprises of trade tariffs, import quotas and export levies. In view of Amitav, globalization is simply the spreading and harmonization of cultures (Amitav 12).
Different authors have given different definitions of globalization. The Oxford English Dictionary explains that the term was used as early as 1930. By then, it simply symbolized the human experience in education as a whole. Russell who was the founder of a Bible School movement used the words ‘corporate giants’ to define globalization in 1897. He argues that the term was first used by economists and social scientists in the 1960s. He further purports that the word was instituted on the international press in 1980s. After the incident, there was the emergence of various world interpretations and understanding of globalization. Immediately after this, India started to globalize (Smith 18).
India began integration as early as 1985. By then, it mainly depended on foreign aids and commercial borrowing. According to Ruddar, the country had poor exports which mainly entailed tea and cotton. He adds that India had many restrictions on import. This greatly hindered the economic growth. It also meant fewer ties with the international community thereby slowing down the globalization rate. A report from Globalization Index in the late 1990s showed that India was among the least globalized countries. From early 2000, the financial strength of the country grew rapidly. This according to Gupta was attributed to the growth in technology, health, and skilled labor. In 2005, the Foreign Direct Investments India rose sharply. This was because the government made industrial reforms that simplified trade with other countries. Since then, India has had a continuous move on globalization (Ruddar 42). To date, the term is not new in the state. The country is recognized as one of the most globalized in the world.
The research paper explores on globalization in India. This is achieved by an evaluation of the causes as well as the effects of the international unity. There is an elaborate argument about the benefits of globalization in India. In this regard, we talk about the important issues that accompany the process. Challenges of globalization are also discussed. This entails the disadvantages of national integration. The paper is then concluded by an elaborate summary of the main ideas (Conversi 39).
Motivation for Globalization in India
Every nation is currently in the business of amalgamation. India has not been left behind in the process. The government of the state has worked tirelessly in conjunction with the developed states like U.S in order to become globalized. Chanda outlines that globalization is normally motivated by several factors. They include biological factors, financial stability, search for technology, socio-cultural balance and political inter- connections as discussed below.
Search for technology is a key drive towards globalization in India. The world has become a place of technology. Almost every activity or process that is done commercially or officially requires the use of machines. The nation of India also followed suit. So they purposed to hunt for technological expertise (Chanda, 28). These include machinery, pharmacy jewelry, internet, industrial planning, military and architecture among others. India sought for unity with the developed world like America and Europe in order to globalize. According to Kuruvilla, India was on the right track in industrial and labor development by the year 2008. This was characterized by the manufacture of cheap household goods, clothes and electrical appliances.
Aspiration for political stability can also motivate amalgamation. Issues of governance pressed India to integrate with other nations. The government was looking for new ideas and policies in government. This included the efforts of the administration to forge ties with other nations through the institution of foreign diplomats. Rosaldo commented by saying that India was a world in motion. He noticed great political ties with the West, Middle East and Africa. It is through stable politics that a country can succeed in all the aspects of development. Security is very vital for globalization to be realized. Once the country is secure and there are no conflicts along the border, then growth becomes inevitable. The need for political stability motivated the country to pursue globalization (Inda and Rosaldo, 32).
Biological factors also motivated India to globalize. Biology is the study of life. These comprise both the animals and plants. The country had to seek for agricultural expertise in the developed countries like Japan. Growth meant that India had to employ knew seeds and farm inputs in order to improve in food and animal production. Use of agricultural machines also had to be invented. This explains why the scholar by name Allende called India as an invented country. She saw it as a nation on the move to catch up with the rest of the world. Population had to be checked for globalization to be realized. The government collaborated with other nations to borrow new drugs and family control methods to help them contain the high birth rates in India.
Desire for economic stability was a major drive towards a global India. Development of a nation requires sufficient funds. This cannot be achieved by isolation. A country must interrelate with others in order to succeed. A report by Ecommerce Journal in 2008 indicates an encouraging report about financial growth in India. The government made commendable monetary reforms. These were meant to ease the restrictions which had been put on trade. Some of these barriers include tariffs on exports and import duty. Foreign investments were accommodated. The policy opened doors for international businesses in the country which had kept off foreign investors for many years. Development projects like roads, banks industries and institutions came up. This is evidence that economic desire made India to seek globalization.
Socio-cultural factor also motivated India to amalgamate. Formerly, India as a nation kept to itself and did not relate with other nations. But as the world increased in knowledge, the need for intercultural relations also increased. People wanted to exchange ideas and social life including intermarriages. There was need to exchange knowledge and skills from varied social groups. This opened up India for assimilation with other nations. According to Chanda, globalization was triggered in India by the social groups like traders, adventurers and preachers. Business activities, tours as well as religious teachings led to interaction among different people thereby promoting integration (Chanda, 36).
Pressure from the international community made India to amalgamate. The world is narrowing the geographical distance. Today, one can access almost everywhere in the globe through phones and internet. This makes globalization to be an urgent issue that India as a country cannot ignore. This energy made India to globalize so that it is not left behind by the other nations. According to Rosaldo, it was set in motion due to pressure from the developed countries. This explains why he was quick to comment that the nation is a world in motion (Inda and Rosaldo 35).
The analysis above critically shows that globalization in India was indeed motivated. That is to say that it was triggered by some significant reasons. Enough evidence has been put across to comply with this idea. Arguments from various authors and scholars have also been used to expose these motivations.
Benefits of Globalization in India
Globalization in India has several benefits. This comprises the reward that India has because of its unity with the rest of the world nations. According to scholars like Smith and Conversi, integration is a better choice to make. They hinted a number of merits. Some of them include effective communication, expanded market, economic liberty, cultural diversity and improved technology as discussed below (Smith 22).
India has benefited from effective communication. Unity with the rest of the world made the country to make various connections. Diplomacy has been intensified. This means that information can flow from the diplomats in different countries to India and vice versa without any problem. Amalgamation resulted to sharing of ideas especially on communication. India is then able to communicate using some of the latest and fastest methods. They consist of twitter, fiber optics satellite, internet and telephone. Students can also benefit because globalization has made it possible for them to use e- learning.
Globalization has created an expanded marked for India. International relations call for eradication of trade barriers. This effort opens the window for bilateral and multilateral trades. India can therefore sell their products in any country so long as they are related. It can also buy goods from the friendly nations without any problem. According to Ruddar, India had become a major exporter of various products to many destinations a cross the world by 2009. The freedom for exchange of products and capital greatly contributed to an expanded market for the country. The students have benefited through foreign learning. A student in India can easily study in the U.K either by residence or through correspondence (Ruddar 43).
Economic liberty is yet another benefit of integration for the country. Financial strength is a measure of growth. This cannot be achieved without interdependence. Unity of nations has made India to be able to access grants, aid and affordable loans from the international community. Globalization is a force that elevates nations from poverty. He further argues that the phenomenon creates a system that promotes an effective and rapid financial growth. Opportunities have become enormous. Workers can move freely and get better jobs in their nations of choice. This is an evidence of a liberated economy.
Cultural diversity is an important advantage to note. Indians never used to interact with other cultures. The coming of globalization has resulted to the growth of a mixed culture and belief. According to the WHO report on integration in 2007, cultural diversity is indeed prominent. The report highlighted that there was the use of different languages across the globe including India. Many people had accepted cultural assimilation as a true fact. The need for high standard life made people to enjoy foreign ideas, products, technology, lifestyle and environment. The harmonization of different cultures and beliefs promotes peace and understanding. India as a nation has greatly benefited from the ideology. Students in India have also enjoyed studying with different nationals in the same institutions.
India has benefited from improved technology. Amalgamation made India to form allies with developed countries. These relations made the country to access a vast knowledge in expertise. According Kuruvilla, globalization was a major breakthrough to India. This is because the country moved forward in a number of areas. Refined war machines and weapons were developed as well as classic electronics. Industrial know- how increased. It led to the innovation of new medicinal. The information capability was also expanded elaborately. This is an evidence of the assistance that globalization has brought to India.
From the evaluation, globalization is practically seen to be of benefit to the Indians. This is because of the manner in which it has made the country to improve in almost every sector. Enough facts have been put across to support this concept. Views from various authors and scholars have also been considered.
Challenges of Globalization in India
Globalization is a good adventure. However, it has several challenges. Scholars like Jagdish have put across a number of concerns. This was also supported by the Wall Street Journal in 2008. Some of them encompass political dominance, criminal activities, and financial crisis, brain drain and health hazards as discussed below.
Political dominance is a major challenge of globalization. This is a situation where integration is used by the most developed nations in order to be in charge of the poor countries. Wealth is power. This is why American is called the world superpower. The rich countries manipulate the vulnerable financially challenged nations like India to gain political control over them. A study report released by Paul Hirsch shows that globalization has been politicized since the U. S started controlling the international economy. This is a big challenge to India which is in the process of globalization. The students can be affected because they may not find places to work in after studies.
Emergence of criminal activities. Integration created international relations. It also opened the doors for people to travel freely from one country to another. The freedom of movement and action created a loop hole for violent activities. This resulted to the emergence of actions like o terrorism, fraud and drug peddling. Terrorists have a global network where they carry out their violent activities using the developed technology. Fraudsters also use internet, computers and satellite machines to misappropriate funds and properties. Drug kingpins are known to use planes and ships to network their illegal business in the world. Nobody is safe in the globe today. The Indian students are vulnerable to drug abuse and terror activities. This is indeed the risk of integration.
Brain rain is also a challenge of globalization in India. The desire for people to have good standards of life as well as financial stability has made them move differently. Immigration is an appropriate example. It involves the movement of people from their country of origin to a foreign one for residence. This results to the departure of valuable know- how from the mother country thereby depleting its resources. India has faced this challenge which has resulted to mass emigration to the West and Africa. According to a report by the Assorted Chambers of Commerce and Industry, brain drain of India students costs the country 10 billion U.S dollars annually.
Health challenges have also risen due to globalization. International relations lead to growth in technology, culture and economy. Such developments carry along diseases and pathogens which are very detrimental to human life. For example, the globalization report reveals that immigration has greatly contributed to the spread of HIV and Aids. Use of heavy weapons like nuclear can be very dangerous to human life. Communication gadgets like phones and computers have long term effect on the users if safety precautions are ignored. Health issues emerging from globalization have indeed affected the Indians.
Financial crisis is one of the challenges of globalization. Integration translates to economic dependence. This results to economic interconnections among the member states. Any financial implication in one country is bound to affect the rest of the countries. India is one of the countries that are in the chain. The fact that it is globalized means that it is vulnerable to the crisis. For example, the world recession in 2007 was felt globally. India was indeed affected and life became very difficult. This is a challenge that globalization must urgently address.
From the discussion above, it is a reality that globalization has disadvantages. Sufficient proof has been given to support the fact. Various writers and reports from journals have also given substantial explanations concerning the topic.
In conclusion, globalization in India is a fact. The research paper has highlighted a number of issues to justify the statement. India is one of the most globalized countries in the world today. However, sustaining this requires the state to deal amicably with the challenges that are involved. In this regard, stability is assured in the country.