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American Airways

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The Pan American World Airways Flight 103, third  daily scheduled transatlantic flight from the British capital, London Heathrow Airport to America’s New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport. In the year 1988 the month of December, on a Wednesday, the aircraft flying this route- a Boeing 747-121, which took the name “Clipper Maid of the Seas”, was destroyed by a bomb. Having registered N739PA, shortly was bombed and killed all of it is 243 passengers and the 16 crew members. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body (Alder, 2008).

The rest of the wreck was able to scatter at an approximate of 50 miles of distance. It is also recorded that eleven other people were killed in Lockerbie, to the south of Scotland, as a result of the section of the plane fell in the town and destroyed several houses that added to causality level of a total of fatalities of 270. The Gulf Wer triggered by the  Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990 sent fuel prices sky-rocketing, which harshly depressed global economic activity. This in turn caused a sharp slimming down of worldwide air travel demand, this plunged the profits obtained from operations including Pan Am's chief transatlantic routes into deep losses. Flight 103 was over Lockerbie when it exploded. Many residents explained the sky lighting up and a large, deafening roar.  People who the plane immediately saw it come down quickly to pieces. It was witnessed by the large pieces of the plane scattered on the ground right in the field, at the backyard and on faces and on the roof tops. The plane was already on fire before it even hit the ground. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. This is because fuel from the plane was already on fire and as a result. As a result, the event is also known as the Lockerbie bombing (Aruba, 2011).

Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was founded on October 27, 1927 seeing that United States of America primary global airline.  The petite industry began flying air correspondences connecting Key West, Florida and Havana, Cuba.  Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. This undermined the traveling public's confidence in the viability of the reorganized Pan Am pushing the firm to sink further. Pan Am Flight 103 taxied out of the gateway at Heathrow airfield in London by 6:04 p.m. scheduled December 21, 1988 - four days previous to Christmas. The 243 passengers and 16 crew members were preparing themselves for a comparatively lengthy journey to New York. Following taxiing for a few minutes, Flight 103, on a Boeing 747, took-off at 6:25 p.m. They had no thought that they simply had 38 extra minutes to survive. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt (Alder, 2008).

At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. .  Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day (Aruba, 2011).

Via 6:50 p.m., the aircraft had assumed 32,002 feet. At 7:00 p.m., the aircraft exploded. Control had now been providing voyage 103's permission to initiate its deep-sea section of their flight to New York, when Flight 103's jinx went off their radar. A moment soon the one large blip was replaced with manifold blips traveling downwind. . It is recorded that among the 259 people who died, 179 of these people were of American origin. Over and above, it bombing brought a lot of fear and security among the people of America. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. However it is not defined on the terror of the bombing as to the regard of the crash, this bomb and its aftermath was just the most recent in a string of similar events.  This is thought to be a revenge of the bombing that was ordered by President Ronald Reagan in the Berlin night club at the Libya’s capital and the Libyan city of the Benghazi in the year 1986, which took the name “Clipper Maid of the Seas”, was destroyed by a bomb. Having registered N739PA, shortly was bombed and killed all of it is 243 passengers and the 16 crew members. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt (Alder, 2008).

Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day .At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. The rest of the wreck was able to scatter at an approximate of 50 miles of distance (Aruba, 2011).

For the inhabitants of Lockerbie, Scotland, their shock was just about to instigate. "It was like meteors falling from the blue," described a local Ann McPhail. The 243 passengers and 16 crew members were preparing themselves for a comparatively lengthy journey to New York. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. Following taxiing for a few minutes, Flight 103, on a Boeing 747, took-off at 6:25 p.m. They had no thought that they simply had 38 extra minutes to survive (Aruba, 2011).  

Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day Flight 103 was over Lockerbie when it exploded. Many residents explained the sky lighting up and a large, deafening roar.  People who the plane immediately saw it come down quickly to pieces. Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day It was witnessed by the large pieces of the plane scattered on the ground right in the field, at the backyard and on faces and on the roof tops. Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s (Alder, 2008). 

To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day. The plane was already on fire before it even hit the ground. This is because fuel from the plane was already on fire and as a result. Some part of the plane that landed on the house tops caused the houses to catch fire as they greatly exploded (Aruba, 2011).

It is recorded that one of the plane’s wings hit the ground in the southern of Lockerbie.  The effect of this was that high that it created crater of 155 feet long. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. The rest of the wreck was able to scatter at an approximate of 50 miles of distance (Burns and Mitchell, 2006).

Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. It is an estimate of 21 houses of the town of Lockerbie that were destroyed but the number could be higher and 11 people were left death. This meant that the death toll was 270 in total that is 259 aboard the plane plus 11 on the ground (Alder, 2008).

The number of those who died was from 21 countries, but the large proportion of these people came from United States of America. It is recorded that among the 259 people who died, 179 of these people were of American origin. Over and above, it bombing brought a lot of fear and security among the people of America. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. However it is not defined on the terror of the bombing as to the regard of the crash, this bomb and its aftermath was just the most recent in a string of similar events.  This is thought to be a revenge of the bombing that was ordered by President Ronald Reagan in the Berlin night club at the Libya’s capital and the Libyan city of the Benghazi in the year 1986. Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result (Aruba, 2011).

Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day. This was a belief in the people’s mind that it was retaliation for those bombing in Libya. The petite industry began flying air correspondences connecting Key West, Florida and Havana, Cuba.  Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s (Alder, 2008).

In the year 1988, the USS Vincennes (a U.S. guided missile cruiser) deliberately shot down the Iranian passenger jet hence killing 290 people on the spot were on board. It was evident this caused as much horror and sorrow as the explosion on Flight 103. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day The U.S. administration claims that the USS Vincennes erroneously recognized the passenger airplane as an F-14 fighter jet (Aruba, 2011).

Other individuals believe that the terror attack over Lockerbie was in revenge for this disaster. It is after the air crash that the article in the Newsweek stated,  Right after the crash, an article in Newsweek stated, "It would be up to George Bush to decide whether, and how, to retaliate" Does America have any more right to "hit back" than do the Arab countries? (Burns and Mitchell, 2006).

This was followed up by an extensive research based on the investigation to what caused the 103 Pan Am Flight to come down. This involved an interview of 15,000 people and examined 180,000 pieces of evidence among the 40 countries. The findings were as follows that the bomb was made from a plastic explosive Semtex and was activated by a timer. This bomb was hidden in a Toshiba radio cassette player which also placed inside a brown Samsonite suitcase. The question that remained unanswered was who actually put the bomb in the suitcase and how it got into plane. According to the investigators they believe they received a “big break” when a man and his dogs went through the forest of about 80 miles from Lockerbie. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie (Aruba, 2011).

Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body. In that cause of walking they found a T- shirt which later turned out to have pieces of the timer in it. After this, it followed a trace of the T-shirt as well as the maker of the timer. The investigators felt confident that they had known who the maker of the T-shirt was and hence who bombed the Flight 103- Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed al-Megrahi and Al Amin Khalifa Fhimah. The Pan American World Airways Flight 103, third  daily scheduled transatlantic flight from the British capital, London Heathrow Airport to America’s New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport. In the year 1988 the month of December, on a Wednesday, the aircraft flying this route- a Boeing 747-121, which took the name “Clipper Maid of the Seas”, was destroyed by a bomb (Alder, 2008).

Having registered N739PA, shortly was bombed and killed all of it is 243 passengers and the 16 crew members. It is also recorded that eleven other people were killed in Lockerbie, to the south of Scotland, as a result of the section of the plane fell in the town and destroyed several houses that added to causality level of a total of fatalities of 270. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body (Aruba, 2011).

The petite industry began flying air correspondences connecting Key West, Florida and Havana, Cuba.  Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  .  Pan Am would develop to provide mainly key Latin American cities by the early 1930s.  To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day. To the gone is one of Pan Am's before time Fokker F-7 aircraft. Operations were rationalized and thousands of employees retrenched. Some feared such efforts would compromise safety, especially if necessary maintenance was deferred to save money, but these fears proved groundless contributing to the continued sinking of the Pan Am airline (Aruba, 2011).

The history records that in the year 1935 Pan Am would start the Trans-Pacific service to Manila right in the Philippines through Hawaii, midway Island, and Guam. This later meant that thereafter the Manila service would extend onto Macau and Hong Kong.  This service was initially inaugurated with the famous Martin 130"China Clipper" flying boat which is seen on the right. Other individuals believe that the terror attack over Lockerbie was in revenge for this disaster. It is after the air crash that the article in the Newsweek stated,  Right after the crash, an article in Newsweek stated, "It would be up to George Bush to decide whether, and how, to retaliate" Does America have any more right to "hit back" than do the Arab countries? This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body (Alder, 2008).

In the year 1939 Pan Am started a Trans Atlantic service with the Boeing 314 “Yankee Clipper”. This resulted to two different ways to operated on this point in time. The first one was the northern route that did include stops in Newfoundland and Ireland en route to South Hampton. The southern direction operated passing through Bermuda & the Azores en route to Lisbon, Portugal & Marseille, France.  These routes would be abridged and eliminated as warfare spread all through Europe with the outburst of World War II. The 243 passengers and 16 crew members were preparing themselves for a comparatively lengthy journey to New York. Following taxiing for a few minutes, Flight 103, on a Boeing 747, took-off at 6:25 p.m. They had no thought that they simply had 38 extra minutes to survive. At this time, the eruption of the war Pan Am made them have an extensive experience with the long distance flying than the US Air Force. This greatly helped to offer unmerged assistance directed to the US in building airports all around the world. This included training of the pilots (Aruba, 2011).

At the eruption of the war Pan Am had more experience with long distance flying than the US Air Force and was able to offer unparalleled assistance to the United States in building airports around the globe, training pilots, navigators and radio operators, ferrying supplies & aircraft as well as flying special critical missions.  Pan Am's most famous flight of World War II was carrying President Roosevelt to Africa to meet with Stalin & Churchill.  The President flew on his birthday and is seen on the right enjoying birthday cake aboard a Pan Am B314 Clipper (Aruba, 2011).

The pan Am airline also suffered from skewed financial policies of the federal government who lent other airlines from other countries like Japan at lower interest rate than its own pan Am airline worsening its financial viability. There were also the discrepancies in fees charged on landing from other Airlines which happened to be higher for Pan Am than other Airline companies. By the mid-1970s, Pan Am had accumulated losses and its debts approached high unmanageable figures. This threatened the airline with bankruptcy. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body (Burns and Mitchell, 2006).

The rival firms convinced the congress that Pan Am would use its political influence to monopolize most of the US air routes and this led to the authorities repeatedly denying the airline permission to operate within the United States, as a result of an amalgamation with another airline. As a result, Pan Am remained an American carrier operating international routes only which consequently affected its profit margin and the entire financial muscle. This situation was further worsened by the deregulation of most Airline industries which compelled most of the US domestic operators who began competing with Pan Am internationally substantially reducing their market size (Burns and Mitchell, 2006).

Pan American decision not to take delivery of the A320s and to put up for sale its delivery positions to Banff meant that the greater part of its short-haul US domestic and European mainline feeder routes, as well as most of its IGS services, continued to be flown with technologically obsolete 727s. This put it at a business disadvantage against rivals operating state-of-the-art aircraft with a greater passenger appeal facilitating its operational and financial woes. On December 21, 1988, the terrorist bombing of Pan Am flight 103 above Lockerbie, Scotland, resulted in 270 dead Pan Am's iconic image had made it a constant target for terrorists, resulting in many travelers avoiding the airline as they had begun to associate it with danger.

The firm was also found to be suffering from security lapses which led to it being fined by the FAA to the advantage of other rival airlines that suffered less damage over the same. This effect was able to displace an approximate of 1500 tons of dirt. At four miles, the nose of the plane was able to discover in the town of Lockerbie. Many of those witnessed this circumstance, humorously said that this reminded them of the nose of the fish’s head cut from its body (Alder, 2008).

The Gulf War triggered by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990 sent fuel prices sky-rocketing, which harshly depressed global economic activity. This in turn caused a sharp slimming down of worldwide air travel demand, this plunged the profits obtained from operations including Pan Am's chief transatlantic routes into deep losses. These unexpected events constituted an additional major blow to Pan Am, which was still reeling from the 1988 disaster. All these events forced Pan Am to sell most of its routes serving London Heathrow — arguably Pan Am's most important international destination — to United Airlines leading to subsequent cost cutting measures accompanied by the elimination of 2,500 jobs which represented 8.6% of its total work force (Burns and Mitchell, 2006).  

 After so many challenges in the Pan Am airlines it set out to re launch in 1991 which was accompanied by additional costs. Pan Am continued to sustain deep losses as result. Its revenue throughout the re launching year of 1991 fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with claims that Pan Am was losing millions of dollars a day. This undermined the traveling public's confidence in the viability of the reorganized Pan Am pushing the firm to sink further (Alder, 2008).

Due to pressure to survive, Pan Am airlines cut wages and other terminal benefits, but this strategy resulted in strikes and worse productivity. Operations were rationalized and thousands of employees retrenched. Some feared such efforts would compromise safety, especially if necessary maintenance was deferred to save money, but these fears proved groundless contributing to the continued sinking of the Pan Am airline (Burns and Mitchell, 2006).

Inconsistent management practices experienced by the Pan Am airline were also responsible for the performance dwindle that led to its ultimate downfall. This was attributed to frequent management turnover with varying policies that affected the flow of operations in the firm (Burns and Mitchell, 2006).

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