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1)      Explain why antibiotics cannot be used to treat acute respiratory tract infections?

a)      Acute respiratory infections are viral.

b)      Antibiotics are associated with numerous side effects.

c)      Organisms responsible for the infections are resistant to antibiotics

d)      Acute respiratory tract infections are incurable

Answer A

Acute respiratory infections are viral.

Rationale

Most of the respiratory tract infections are viral and assigning antibiotics is unnecessary. Conditions can be managed by use of analgesics, decongestants and supportive therapy.

2)      Nasal pharyngitis is highly contagious. Choose the way of preventing its spread from answers outlined below.

a)      Carefully disposing materials like tissues.

b)      Avoid sharing eating utensils.

c)      Washing hands thoroughly after nose blowing.

d)      All the above

Answer D 

Rationale

All the above methods can be used to prevent the spread of nasal pharyngitis.

3)      Why do children have larger tonsils than adults?

a)      They are more susceptible to URIs than adults.

b)      Tonsils undergo enlargement after birth

c)      Prevalence of tonsillitis in infants causes enlargement

d)      Tonsils shrink as people get older.

Answer A

They are more susceptible to URIs than adults

Rationale

The larger tonsils offer the much needed protection from URIs. Immunity in children is less effective than that in adults.

4)      How can pneumonia be prevented in infants and children?

a)      Treatment using antibiotics.

b)      Avoiding overcrowded places

c)      Through vaccination.

d)      None of the above 

Answer C

Through the vaccination

Rationale

Vaccination can be done using heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (recommended for infants and children below 23months). Polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine provides protection in children above 24 months.

5)      Children with HIV are more likely to be diagnosed with TB, explain why.

a)      Low  immunity

b)      TB is an opportunistic disease

c)      HIV and TB are caused by similar organism

d)      HIV is a precursor for TB infections

Answer A

Low immunity

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