A fracture may be defined as a crack or break in the bone. Fractures result from excessive pressure exalted on the bone surface or due to weakening of the bones due to a medical condition, also called osteoporosis (Cavendish, 2008). Generally, fractures can be categorized as closed or simple where the skin is still intact with the bone, or as open or compound in which there are wounds within the fracture or where it is exposed to the surrounding, thus can be easily contaminated. Fractures can be complete, where broken bones are completely separated, or incomplete (greenstick) where broken bones are not completely separated. Impacted fracture is where the bone-ends have been drawn together, avulsion fractures result when a portion of the bone is pulled off by a tendon whereas pathologic fractures result from minor injuries to bones already weakened by diseases.
Fractures may lead to excessive loss of blood through bleeding, swellings and itching around the affected areas and overall body weakness. Bone fractures are characterized by extreme pain due to breaking of the periosteum, edema of soft tissues caused by bleeding from periosteal blood vessels which evokes pressure and pain, muscle spasms and swelling at the fracture site. Some people also experience paralysis or itchiness in areas below the fracture. Weakness and inability to bear weight may also indicate the presence of a bone fracture (Egol, Koval & Zuckerman, 2010).
Diagnosis of fractures involves assessing the history of the fracture: how, when, where and why it occurred. This is often followed by pain control and minor operations. Treatment include First Aid to prevent bleeding, covering open wounds, X-Rays of affected areas, maneuver of displaced bones, and anesthesia treatment for severe fractures, surgery and physical therapy to repair fractures. Pain relievers and muscle relaxants are also administered.
People should avoid risky activities and reckless behaviors that may increase chances of accidents. One should wear protective clothes when involved in exposure activities such as construction and sports. Those with fractures should seek medical attention immediately and take more of Vitamin C and Zinc supplements to promote healing of the fractures.
Myopathy refers to a condition in which muscles of the body fail to function properly due to weaknesses in their fibers and strands. Myopathy is primarily associated with body muscles only. Other forms of myopathy may include muscle spasms and cramps (Lawrence, 2011).
Myopathy is caused by muscle weakening, spasms or tetany and inflammations of the muscles. It develops due to genetics (inherited) or acquired conditions of the muscles that may result from fatigue, body dehydration or stiffness.
Vinken suggest that myopathy usually takes two forms; inherited such as nemaline, congenital and mitochondrial Myopathy, and acquired myopathy for example polymyositis and dermatomyositis (Vinken, 1992). Myopathy causes body weakness, inflammation of muscles, dysfunction of the metabolic system and muscle rigidity thereby hindering free movement.
In comparison, acquired myopathy resolves quicker than inherited myopathy. They also show varied symptoms in different individuals. Myopathy is generally characterized by weakness of muscles, general body weakness and inactiveness and sometimes muscle pains. In rare cases, a person may pass out discolored urine.
Treatment of myopathy starts by undergoing diagnosis testing, after which drug therapy, massage and acupuncture and yoga may follow. Physical therapy and minor surgery may be used as well. Pain management is usually essential. Full medical care may involve administration of immune-suppressive drugs that ease inflammation, for example, Trexall (Kagen, 2009).
People who are experiencing muscle cramps and inflammations should seek medical attention as soon as possible. It is advisable to do regular exercises to increase muscle flexibility and blood circulation within the body, muscles and nerves.