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Introduction

Just as any other country or community in the vast world has literature, the Chinese republic is not to be forgotten in terms of literal arts. China has had many forms of literature and subsequently many big names in the literal field. One of the big names in literature of the 20th century is a man known as Qian Zhongshu. Theodore Huters an American scholar of literature defines the man Zhongshu as one of awesome and diverse abilities with vast account of knowledge in his brains. To accredit the study of the literal expert Zhongshu, Huters has not only tried to fully discuss his obscure style of literature on his own self, he goes steps ahead to include ideas from other experts in this field. Some of the experts, whose ideas have been included in a bid to shade some useful light on the topic, are Hermann Melville and Wolfgang Iser who are portrayed as general theorists. He does this to create a general-purpose introduction to Qian’s works and style of literature and through this; he is also trying to achieve an extensive argument for elementary analysis of his prose style as this is crucial to understanding and evaluation of his achievements as a Chinese writer. He moves on to acknowledge that it is an independent, stimulating and crowded agenda.  

Qian was then a young Chinese elite who was however reportedly not educated in China, he had gone abroad to increase his intellect and so on returning to his motherland, he used his international mastery to demolish a host of traditional literature practices which he thought unwise. He criticized his home form of traditional literal theories by bombarding them with international mastery of literature. For general purpose role, the book offers a full chapter with Qian’s biography which is further defined as a no nonsense which puts into discussion his works beginning with his literally criticism and moving forward on that background to explore his familiar essays and fiction. It is evident that the book does not move deep in its discussion of Qian’s four-volume survey of Chinese literature. This chapter in Huters book seeks to gradually develop his discussion on Qian Zhongshu. He presents his original analysis and appraisal of Qian’s well-known fiction and develops it to culminate in a study of one of the Chinese writer’s novel which is a major piece of art of the 20th century.

After substantial studies, Huters emphasizes that Qian and other Chinese writers of the 20th century shared a style in common. He states that they share the style of shocking readers out of easy assumptions and habits of thoughts conditioned by traditions. He however gives Qian a credit which according to him, the other writers did not deserve. He moves forward to explain the reason for accrediting Qian as, he used the heritage of Chinese literary language and rhetoric more positively than any of his predecessors. This keeps him ahead of the race or it even makes him stand aloof. Qian’s literary style was a shocking masterpiece as studies show that throughout his career as a writer; never at once did he allow his style of writing to be identified solely with one model or another. He was never a constant writer of one style, as soon as you thought you have gotten his way of writing, you were to be surprised by reading his next article which would have a very different style altogether. This is attributed to his great creativity which almost surpassed normal understanding. He is seen as a respiratory for ideas; an ironic force covers his ideas, and guides the flow of thoughts moving them from the playful down to the sharply satirical and later onto the tragic part of it all. Qian Zhongshu, had well developed this style for his short stories and essays, however, as he moved into fiction, he definitely had to modify this practice. He had to learn how to create a solid world of false characters who according to him, engaged the reader first before he later on bombard and overpower them with his ironic and subsequent tragic vision. He engaged his avid readers when he went out of his way to give them fiction with this literal style. He had to allow narrative and dialogue to develop his stories before finally bringing on board his irony.

Qian is portrayed as an unnecessarily discursive character; however, twice in his readings he promises his readers and commits himself to make literature an autonomy. This point is not well developed to enable the reader to fully understand the importance and meaning of his commitment. This is the discursive part of Qian as it brings out many confusing thoughts but is willing not to explain all of them leaving his readers confused. According to Huters, Qian’s style of writing bears greatly with a pretty good range of historical events, this is well defined in the fourth chapter where Huters reportedly goes out of his way to show just how far he can go to elaborate this issue. He presents a major example of the field, depth of the vision, this he achieves by drawing parallel between the stylistic reforms witnessed in the 17th century Europe and those witnessed later on in China in the 20th century, and he puts the prominent writer with his mart in the middle of all these.

Huters there hence demonstrates the style of writing of Qian Zhongshu at this time as been baroque. This was very apt of him as it was the perfect definition that suited the style that had been adopted by Qian at this time. In a short story called Souvenir, which is basically a story that talks about, the discovery of mortality after an adulterous affair to a woman, Huters does not fail to notice what kind of talent Qian Zhongshu possesses. Qian narrates this whole story in a comedy like manner without even giving the reader time to develop sympathetic feelings for the woman in context. Huters is even amazed how the writer achieves this and makes the whole story look like a big joke thought and in the near end; the reader cannot help himself but laugh even after reading through such an adulterous script. Huters reports that Qian makes sure that he gives the reader no time to develop any real sympathy for the characters and maintains excessive detachment.

Another substantial analysis that Huters makes on the style of writing used by Qian Zhongshu is his enormous ability to shock his readers and challenge them with specious logic. Here he gives an example of one of Qian’s very obscure logics which goes that distinctions between right and wrong, good and evil, heterodoxy and orthodoxy and so on, are at times nothing more than distinctions between self and other. This is a mind-boggling statement which even most of the average minded persons couldn’t comprehend. It is obviously sure that Qian is one of the writers who are given to gratuitous shocking and overwhelming statements. Qian’s style of writing was controversial in post war China and it stands controversial to this very date. This can be attributed to his numerous and endless use of satire, he sets up a very powerful conception of esthetic analysis which sustains as remarkably rich and broad discussion of his works.

China as a republic is reportedly to have one of the longest period in human civilization which dates back to around 5000 years ago and it also rates high in translation having a history of around three thousand years back. The translation and its effects rose gradually from its most crude form to its most elaborate form which was better known as literary translation during the late Qings dynasty. This period is captive of the period in Chinese history when western literal works started been fully translated into Chinese. A Chinese grammarian and renowned writer/translator gives the values of a good translator as one who understands and has great mastery of the two languages such that he/she knows similarities and differences of the two languages. He requires that the would be translator should have full understanding of the meaning, style and spirit of the source text and transfer them directly to the target language, he finally requires that the same translator, should translate the text such that there is no discrepancy between the source file an d the target text. Chinese literature of this new period of the 20th century is characterized with its complicated concepts of literature and its variety of learning institutions.

This fully differs with any other of the Chinese literary period with exception of the well-remembered May 4th period when Chinese literary practiced were given a head on challenge by those practices from the much civilized West. Initially, poems and poetic essays were the main form of literal practice in China. However, the increasing translation of Western novels into the Chinese language dearly increased their form of literature enriching it to marked standards. This broke up the Manchu’s closed-door policy and brought the people of the Republic of China the much needed Western ideologies, lives and customs. This introduction had a marked impact on the then social reformers as it to some extent brought forth the democratic light which was well lacking in China. In present-day China a large quantity of Western works were translated into Chinese these mainly include m works revolving around scientific and technical grounds. This were to be very useful to the peoples republic of China putting in mind that this period, the same republic was undergoing industrial revolution at this time. Logically they therefore needed a wide pool of knowledge which could only be gathered by borrowing from the already developed We stern countries. This saw literary translators been a big and playing a useful part in the Chinese governance as they went as far as translating the United Nations documents and articles which the governance much needed.

In 1964, another different trend in literal translation was witnessed when one of the most or probably the most renowned writer in the history of the people’s republic of China defined his understanding of literally translation in a way of his own. Qian Zhongshu defined the topic as transmigration theory for literal translation. He widely borrows from the Buddhists practices, where transmigration is defined as the instance where the soul, spirit or some other seat of personality vacate the body it has been occupying and enters into another body or object. Using this, he then states that, a literal translation is like the act of transmigration whereby the soul, the spirit of the original text, remains in the target text even though the career of them, the language has changed. He set requirements of his theory of transmigration in a bid to achieving literal translation which he himself later admits as been too, high for any personality to fully achieve.

It should however be accepted that this new form of translation was to the utmost advantage the  peoples republic of China, this is simply because the system was more diverse in style, it was also very much more inclusive in terms of ideas and more open in assimilating foreign culture especially those culture practiced in the Western countries. Because of this, Chinese literature is no longer a tributary of the mainstream world of literature. The fact is that it cannot be isolated by any reasonable scholar in literature it has come to a point where it reportedly carries on an equal dialogue with literature from the wide West. This state of event comes up duly because of the interaction between Chinese scholars and other many scholars from other countries especially those from the western nations. This interaction is what firstly brought the translation of Western literature into Chinese3 and which goers a long way to bring civilization, democracy and a range of good to the peoples republic of China.

Some literal critics argue that the New Period Literature in China is still progressing however, arguments have been put forth to counter this critics. For instance, if we intend to move on and observe this in the eye of the ‘other’ or rather simply from the Western influence perspective, and give a down to earth analysis of this, we must therefore state that it is an occurrence which has just passed but which still hold s much significance to present day Chinese literature orientation. In the last century, it is evident that Chinese literature has been in full flourish twice. The first instance of this such flourishment is the period between May 4th and the 1930s. This had a strong impact on the traditional and cultural ideas of the Chinese republic. It put on board some novel trends and currents prevalent in the West then and was trained a group of talented writers who had a great spec of knowledge of bot5h languages. This period of development in Chinese literature was a stepping-stone to modern Chinese literature this is because it had remarkable achievements. The second and final instance of the literal flourishment experienced in the republic of China was the New Period.

This period is to be remembered for the longest time in discussing literal development in modern day China. During this period, there was reportedly openness to the outside world and foreign cultural academic exchange programs enabled more and more Western trends of .philosophy and other humanities to flood into China. This second flourishing of the peoples republic of China’s form of literature has helped train a group of great artistic writers with God given potentiality who move forward to exploring  new literary concepts and experimenting with new artistic devices and techniques. This has greatly enabled the Chinese government to develop as the Western systems and policies of development are now known to them through the translation of theory works into Chinese for easier understanding.

Conclusion

The people’s republic of China has had a great history of civilization and translation. However, their earlier policies hindered their achievement of fast development. This is such as the closed policies which did not allow them to fully interact and gather knowledge from any other sources. Early in the 209th century, this was openly criticized and their traditional literal practices made .look inferior compared to the Western practices. This period then saw the training of writers who studied and sought to understand the Western literal culture. After this, the republic of China saw the change which started gradually by the introduction of Western form of literature intro that of Chinese. Great writers like Qian came up and the principle of openness which sought the integration of Western culture and Chinese culture was established. This went along way to bring development to the republic of China. All this is most directly attr4ibuted to the translation theory and literature.

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