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Wright (2009) defines homicide as “the killing of a person by another, whether unintentionally or premeditatedly”. This can also include reckless, justifiable, or negligent homicide. Each of these types differs one from another, but they share common elements that describe them in the legal system. The basic elements of homicide include intent, causation, and act (Reid, 2009). Intent refers to a purpose or a reason for committing a homicide. It exists when an individual deliberates and thinks over the criminal offense before committing it. Therefore, there must be a deliberation of the reason for committing homicide. Causation refers to the element of homicide that denotes the events that result in the victim's death (Reid, 2009). It is necessary to prove that the accused person’s actions were directly responsible for the homicide. The Criminal Justice System must determine causation before charging the defendant with homicide. Act refers to the physical action of killing another person (Reid, 2009). It is necessary to prove what the defendant physically did to cause the homicide. Ken willfully transmitted HIV to Barbie, which is a criminal act. He should undergo conviction of a homicide offence because Barbie died of HIV-related infections. Ken will still undergo conviction of lethally infecting his partners even when Barbie does not die.
Lori committed voluntary euthanasia by killing her ailing father, Vincent. Reid (2009) defines voluntary euthanasia as “the practice of intentionally killing an individual in order to relieve suffering and pain”. Vincent asked her daughter to end his life because of constant pain he was experiencing due to terminal cancer. Lori did not have another option but to shoot her father and end his life. In most countries any form of euthanasia, including voluntary euthanasia, is illegal. Therefore, most people consider euthanasia to be a criminal offense (Reid, 2009). Intent, causation, and act can explain euthanasia as a criminal offense. The intent of committing euthanasia was to meet Vincent’s need of relieving the suffering and pain that he was experiencing. The causation in this scenario of Lori killing her father includes Vincent’s requests to relieve suffering and pain. Shooting is the physical action that resulted in Vincent’s death his daughter executed upon request to end his life. There is a likelihood of Lori to undergo the conviction of first-degree murder as the most serious crime she committed. First-degree murder refers to deliberated and premeditated killing of a person. Because the incident took place in the hospital, the police assumed that the murder could not be second degree or third degree murder. It is possible to convict Lori of euthanasia as less serious criminal offense. She can convince the police that her father requested to die in order to do away with suffering and pain.
Larry apparently committed kidnap and rape by forcibly having sex with his girlfriend and locking her for 24 hours. Kidnapping refers to the act of holding a person unlawfully and un-consensually for a certain purpose, such as committing sexual intercourse. Rape refers to the act of forcing a person to have sexual intercourse with him or her, especially by a use of violence or threat against him or her. Elements of raping include intent, causation, and act. The intent of Larry to have sex with his girlfriend was to satisfy his sexual desire. Causation in this scenario is Lorry’s threads not to let his girlfriend go. The physical action includes committing forced sexual intercourse. Therefore, the girlfriend allowed Larry to have sex with her unwillingly. Elements of raping include act and intent. Act in the scenario of kidnapping is locking his girlfriend in his neighbor’s vacant room for 24 hours when she tried to leave. The intent was to keep the girlfriend from leaving.
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