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a) Issues Associated with Spam
- Email is considered one of the most efficient ways of communicating to customers, friends and employees. These days, unsolicited commercial emails (spam) make a large percentage of emails. One can get spammed for many reasons including; personal, commercial, criminal, political and religious reasons. Spam are kind of electronic junk mail or junk news group postings. Spam not only waste peoples’ time but do also eat up a lot of network bandwidth. Spam has been found to be one of the biggest challenge facing internet users, service providers and corporations. It has led to wastage of billions of money in network resources, forgone Internet sales and diminishing productivity.
b) Impacts of changing technology on intellectual property issues
- There has been an ongoing debate on the impact of technological progress on IPR. With this regard, one empirical literature suggests that technological hindrances have conventionally offered protection to intellectual property. With the recent rapid technological change, the technological barriers among people are reducing at a faster rate as people become IT literate. This has impacted negatively on the process of IPR protection as the number of people using materials unsuitably increases. Technological shifts have especially impacted negatively on the entertainment industry where the protection of IPR has been violated to a great extent. However, technological progress has also impacted positively on IPR protection. It is important to note that prior to invention of the printing press in the 13th century, intellectual material copying was entirely manual and hence cumbersome. This had failed to offer adequate protection to intellectual property. The introduction of the printing press raised the level of protection to the intellectual property.
c) Copyright laws and its impact on information systems
- According to copyright laws, an author owns the exclusive rights to his/her composition. The composition is protected for many years. In this case the composition is considered to be an intellectual property. The copyright may be transferred, sold, or inherited but the copyright still endures. Copy right laws have impacted on information technology in various ways. This is because the copyright Act’s exclusive rights provision gives a developer and a publisher the right to control unauthorized exploitation of their work. A person is supposed to secure protection of what he/she has come up with. Copy right protection has promoted the progress of science and useful Arts.
d) Software piracy Issue
- Software piracy is an illegal business and is associated with ownership of information. Software piracy leads to a heavy loss of revenue, spread of malware and computer hacking. Nowadays, software is being leased rather than being sold. The lease is often for a limited time and is renewed in order for one to continue using the product. Software piracy includes downloading unlicensed copies of software from the internet, making copies of disks, selling counterfeit online or elsewhere, using counterfeit or unlicensed copies or installation of one licensed copy of software onto multiple computers.
e) Issues for software developers
- Since software is usually expensive, it is imperative to clearly understand the IPR issues related to them. There have emerged several trends in relation to IPR for software. First is the issue of multiple developers. If software has been developed by more than one software developer, all the developers have the right over that software and as such, they must join hands as co-authors of the software in question in obtaining IPR. The second issue relating to IPR for software developers is the issue of rights for software developing companies. To this effect, an owner of a company that develops software may have not been granted the civil rights to his own corporation. Finally, it is possible to sell software via a different company that is independent from the developing company.
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