The authors explore the cultural and social life of earlier members of the genus Homo, which include the archaic Homo sapiens. According to the authors, the archaic Homo sapiens were more environmentally adapted than their predecessors were. This is because they were able to make tools for use in various activities, which ranged from hunting, fishing, to self-defense. Tools found by archeologists that belonged to the archaic Homo sapiens indicate that they were advanced than those tools used by their predecessors. The authors explain that many of the tools that belonged to the archaic Homo sapiens resembled a lot with tools that were used in earlier industries by the current Homo sapiens. These tools date between 40,000 and 125, 000 years ago. Some of these tools include borer, hand axe, scraper, and knives, among others. Each tool had a different shape and size. Moreover, each tool had a specific purpose. For instance, the archaic Homo sapiens used knives to skin animals after hunting them, while the hand axe was used to break complex pieces of meat and bones from animals. Many of their tools were made of stones. However, the authors indicate that some tools were made of bones from animals. The resource is very useful in understanding more about the tools used by the archaic Homo sapiens because the authors provide some images of these tools. These images enable the reader to understand more about the different shapes, sizes, and forms of tools used by the predecessor of the modern human. In fact, to enable the reader understand the link between archaic Homo sapiens and the modern humans, the authors compare some of the tools belonging to the archaic Homo sapiens and those used by early surgeons. Just like the early Homo sapiens, the early surgeons used scalpels and blades made of stones from naturally occurring volcanic. They also used wood to make handles for their surgical tools and pine resin to join the handles to the tools. The authors also provide images comparing the early surgeons’ tools with those used by the archaic Homo sapiens. The book is very insightful not only in providing a description of the features present in tools used by the archaic Homo sapiens, but also by providing images of some of the tools, with a clear view of the features present in these tools.
In this book, the authors start by giving an account of cultural practices of the Homo sapiens. Just like Haviland et. al (2010), the authors in this resource acknowledge that the different types of archaic Homo sapiens were superior than their predecessors in terms of adaptation to the environment. The authors state that the Neanderthal man and the Homo sapiens sapiens were some of the different forms of archaic Homo sapiens. They state that these two categories of archaic Homo sapiens made and used tools of much greater efficiency and sophistication than all other prior species. For instance, the Neanderthals could make blades measuring around 40 inches from stones. The Homo sapiens sapiens could make blades measuring between 10 and 40 inches from stones as well. The authors of this resource agree with the previous authors that the archaic Homo sapiens made and used various tools for different purposes. Some of the tools mentioned by these authors include stone blades, scrapers, chisel-like tools, arrows, and needles. Some of the uses of these tools as indicated by the authors include hunting, skinning animals, scraping and smoothing animal skins, and digging. Another similarity of these authors’ work and that of the previous authors is that the archaic Homo sapiens’ tools resembled a lot with tools used in early industries. These similarities include using wooden handles and the use of animal bones to make sharp-edged tools.
In this book, the authors explore the Mousterian tradition of the archaic Homo sapiens. The authors use the word ‘Mousterian’ to refer to the tool-making behavior of the archaic Homo sapiens. Similar to Serena & Warms (2010) observation, the Neanderthal man belonged to one of the forms of archaic Homo sapiens. They state that tools made by the Neanderthal man were lighter and smaller than those made by earlier human species were. The authors also indicate that the Neanderthals also used advanced technology to make their tools. Unlike their predecessors who would make two or three flakes from an entire stone, the Neanderthals would make several smaller flakes from one stone. In addition, their flakes were sharper and smoother than those made their ancestors. This resource provides more information about the tool-making behavior of the archaic Homo sapiens. This is because the authors introduce new information, which is not present in the previous sources. The authors state that the Neanderthals had a wider variety of tools in their tool kit. These included flakes, hand axes, borers, and spears. They could use flakes to shave wood, which they would then use to make shafts for attaching to spears and other hand-held tools. The authors also point out that “this variety of tools facilitated more effective use of food resources and enhanced the quality of clothing and shelter.” This information enlightens us that the archaic Homo sapiens used tools to make cloths and shelter.
The author of this resource focuses on the evolution of the early man, whose origin was traced in African countries. The author states that around 150,000 years ago, a major climate change took place in the world. During this period, the early Homo sapiens who lived in African regions were forced to migrate to other place of the world. Some headed towards Europe while others headed towards Asia. As they migrated, they had to close open water and Arctic regions. Due to exposure to different climatic conditions, they had to develop new techniques of making their tools. Their tool-making technique was improved compared to that of their ancestors back in the African regions. The author states that the archaic Homo sapiens were the first inventors of the blade. The blade was later adapted across Europe and Asia by the early ancestors of the modern human. Similar to other authors, the author of this resource points that the blades used by the archaic Homo sapiens were lighter, smaller, and sharper than those used by prior species were. In addition, the author refers to the tool-making tradition of the archaic Homo sapiens as Mousterian tradition. This is similar to the previous resource by Castro et al. (1997). The author also provides images of various tools as well as images demonstrating the various techniques used by the Mousterian toolmakers to make refined blades. These images help the reader to understand the various tool-making technologies used by the archaic Homo sapiens. The author introduces a different tool, which is said to have been used by the archaic Homo sapiens during the Upper Paleolithic period. This is the spear-thrower (atlatl). The spear-thrower was a wooden device, between 1 and 2 feet long, with a hook at one edge, a stone at the middle, and a handle at the other edge. Hunter used the spear-thrower to through spears to wild animals from a distant location. This resource forms a good basis of the research because it enables the researcher to understand the various forms of technologies used by the archaic Homo sapiens and introduces new tools, which have not been mentioned in previous resources.
In this resource, the author states that around 100,000 years ago, the human population spread into separate regions due to the disruption by the climatic changes that were taking place. There was a lot of volcanic eruption, which took place in many parts of Africa, which was the dominant habitant of the early human. The volcanic activities did not provide favorable survival environment to the early humans. Thus, they started moving to other parts of the world. Since they were separated from each other, they had to develop better methods of survival. This is when the archaic Homo sapiens are said to have developed new technology for making tools. Findings from this resource are similar to those of Castro et al. (1997) concerning development of advanced technology of manufacturing tools to develop cloths and shelter. The author states that the early humans from the archaic Homo sapiens generation, used scrapers to smoothen animal skins, which they used to cover themselves since they were exposed to cold climatic condition in their new habitants in Europe and Asia. In addition, they used hand axes to cut pieces of wood, which they used to make shelter. Therefore, this resource is important in providing more information concerning the archaic Homo sapiens’s tool-making behavior, and its connection with improving survival techniques of the archaic Homo sapiens.