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Challenges Facing America in the 19th Century

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The 19th century (1801-1900) was an era in history that showed the collapse of many empires like Portuguese, Spanish, Chinese and Holy Roman. This opportunity gave chance to the United States, British Empire, to impel military conflicts and major advances in science and exploration.  It is important to note that after the fall of the French Empire and its followers during the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire was the world’s leading power, it controlled almost one quarter of world’s people and over one fifth of the land area. This promoted trade and fight against uncontrolled piracy. 19th century is period that led to invention and discoveries, with major expansion in the fields of electricity, mathematics, chemistry, biology and other metallurgy that later became the foundation of technological advances in the following centuries. Industrial revolution began in this era where even young children were employed in factories and mines (David & Heidler, 19).

There were major development in medicine and the general understanding of human being anatomy and major developments on disease prevention. It led to world’s rapid growth in population especially in the western world. It is believed that in the United States the population doubled. During this period there was introduction of railroads that gave major development in land transportation, it changed people’s lives. This period led to liberalization (Eric, 30).

Many theorists suggest that slavery reduced, Britain was forced to make Barbary pirates to stop their practice of kidnapping and enslaving Europeans. In 13th Amendment that followed after United States civil war led to abolishing of slavery in 1865. Brazil abolished slavery in 1888 and Britain abolished in 1834 (Allen, 8).

In North America there was a remarkable extensive formation of new establishment, where largest cities were founded at some point in the century. In 19th century it is believed that nearly 70 million people left Europe. The century also experienced quick formation, development and codification of various sport activities especially in United States. Various sports associations were formed; football association, rugby union, and baseball. Britain led to spread of cricket around the world (Mark, 25).

In 19th century there was a Christian religious revival movement called Second Great Awakening in the United States that articulated Arminian theology that expected each and every person to be saved through revivals. This led to formation of many new denominations. Many people who were converted believed that the Awakening was supposed to create new millennial age (David & Heidler, 4).

It is also important to state that in 1839 to 1860 there was the trail of tears that led to removal and movement of Native American nations from southeastern region that forms the current United States. This process was described as genocide, because many Native Americans suffered due to great exposure, disease and starvation while they were travelling (Allan, 24).

In 1846 to 1848 there was a war between United States and Mexico (Mexican War), American forces invaded and captured New Mexico, California, and other parts that are considered northern Mexico. In 1858 Mathew Calbraith who was the commodore of the U.S. Navy forced the opening of Japan to the West. He also had several victorious engagements with the British vessels (Eric, 11).

John Quincy Adams proposed use of modern technology and development of education but he received a lot of friction from his enemies from Congress, he lost his second term, becoming the first president to lose only a single term since the period of his father. Theorists suggest that he lacked political ability, popularity and he met politicians who undercut him. In 1868 U.S congress gave assurance to its Citizens the right to expatriate. This allows the United States citizens to relinquish federal nationality in order to be allowed to reclaim Constitutional rights as defined by the 14th Amendment ((David & Heidler, 9).

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