- Spread of disease can be avoided through certain measures.
a) Correct administration of medication.
b) Complete isolation of child
c) Administration of penicillin
d) Administration of antibiotics.
Answer 1 d.
Ingestion of antibiotics ensures that a disease is non-infectious after 24 hours. Children should also avoid the company of other children by not attending school and, public places before 24 hours after ingestion of antibiotics are over. Parents should ensure that unimmunised members of the family are not in close contact with the infected child to avoid the spread of disease.
- Otitis media is one of the most occurring diseases in early ages. Describe its trend.
a) It occurs in the first 24months and reduces with age.
b) Occurs when a child is five years of age.
c) It affects children at the age of 3 and increases with age
d) It attacks during the first 24 months and increases with age.
Answer 2 a.
Om occurs in the first 24 months after birth. It does so in a stage called Acute Otitis Media. It decreases as one grows older with an exception of the age of between five to six years when it increases. Rarely, OM occurs in children of the age seven.
- What treatment does the American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee of Infectious Diseases recommend for TB?
a) Revamping and INH for 6 months 1 time every day.
b) PZA administered for the first 4 months followed by rifampin and INH for the next 2 months.
c) Fitting patient with n95 respirator.
d) Administration of PZA for the first 2 months followed by rifampin and INH for the next 4 months
Answer 3 d.
It recommends a six month treatment consisting of PZA given daily during the first 2 months, rifampin and INH administered to the patient a maximum of 3 times per week for the next 4 months.
- Identify the five key issues that a nurse should observe during a nursing process.
a) Asses respiratory rate
b) Observe child’s chest movements and vital signs
c) Colour pigmentation of the skin.
d) Body movements of the child.
Answer 4 b.
A nurse should observe the child’s chest movement and respiratory behaviours, hydration of the child, activities of the child and its behaviours, temperature and blood pressure of the child, weight loss and levels of infection spread.
- The respiratory tract has defences that can be weakened by certain conditions.
a) Over working.
b) Lack of a balanced diet.
c) Sicknesses such as asthma, cardiac complication and allergies.
d) Failure to observe child’s body hygiene.
Answer 5 c.
Asthma, passive smoking, preterm birth, allergies, cardiac complications that lead to pulmonary congestion, exposure to cold, fatigue and malnutrition.
Chapter 47 questions
- Why should the endoscopy procedure used in the removal of foreign bodies be done immediately?
a) Pneumonia is produced and it makes removing foreign bodies difficult.
b) The foreign body reaches an area that is not accessible through surgery.
c) The foreign body can cause fatal damages to vital organs.
d) The child may experience excessive pain.
Answer 1 a.
The progressive local inflammatory process set off by the foreign bodies hampers removal. This encourages the production of pneumonia which makes removing the foreign material a challenge.
- Explain what happens during the acute phase of Acute Lung Injury.
a) Child shows respiration distress due to suffocation
b) Child experiences mild heart attacks
c) Child experiences trouble breathing
d) The lungs of the affected child fail
Answer 2 a
Initially, the alveolocapillary membrane gets damaged. Achievement of Interstial edema gets attained as a result of increased permeability of the pulmonary capillary. The child shows respiratory distress due to fibriosis. The lungs then become stiff because of suffocation. Diffusion of gases in the lungs is interrupted causing bronchus muscles to swell.
- Atopy is a term used in food sensitivity. Elaborate on its meaning.
a) Refers to all allergies relating to food.
b) It is a term used to explain the effects of food allergies.
c) It is used to refer to allergies acquired hereditarily.
d) Refers to allergies that occur due to other illnesses.
Answer 3 c.
The term atopy refers to allergies that are acquired hereditary. Children with one parent with allergies have 50% chance of atop while those with two parents suffering from allergies have 1005 chance of acquiring atopy.
- Primary lactose deficiency is the most common type of lactose intolerance. State its character.
a) Situation where there is totally no hydrolyses of lactase
b) There is an imbalance in the ability for lactase to hydrolyse lactase
c) Sugar levels in the urine are high
d) The capability if lactase to hydrolyse lactose is normal.
Answer 4 b.
Primary lactose deficiency would be characterised by the imbalance of ability of lactase to hydrolyse lactose and the total amount of lactose ingested into the body. This deficiency initially manifests itself at the age of five years.
- Diarrhoea has different categories. Name them and explain briefly.
a) Fatal diarrhoea and mild diarrhoea
b) Acute diarrhoea and Chronic diarrhoea
c) Respiratory diarrhoea
d) Temporary diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea
Answer 5 b.
Acute diarrhoea occurs in children younger than 5 years of age. It can be caused by infection and characterised by the sudden change of stool consistency and increase in stool. It does not require specific treatment. It subsides on its own after a short duration of time.
Chronic diarrhoea can be as a result of chronic conditions or advanced acute diarrhoea. Children diagnosed with this pass of stool frequently and water levels in stool increasing.
Intractable diarrhoea infancy occurs during the first days in life because of infection or acute diarrhoea. Chronic non-specific diarrhoea would be characterised by stool that has undigested food particles. It prevails in children up to the age of 4 years.
Chapter 48 questions
- In the past, endocarditis had been wrongly perceived, explain and give the right perception.
a) It was thought to be infectious
b) They thought it was incurable
c) It was perceived to be acquired through invasive procedures.
d) They thought it was uncontrollable
Answer 1 a.
In the past, endorcadits had been thought to be acquired through invasive procedures but, this was not the case. It was associated with a long period of exposure to bacteria during the normal day to day activities. It is also as a result of medical procedures such as dental work.
- Bacterial Endorcadits has many causatives.
a) Bacteria and streptococcus viridians
c) Caused by chemicals in processed food
d) It is caused by side effects of drugs
It can be caused by a number of agents which are streptococcus viridians, staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacteria and bacteria.
- What are cyanosis and its manifestations?
A) It is when a child suffocates due to less oxygen
B) Condition where a child gets blue discolouration
C) Condition when a child looses conscious due to lack of oxygen
d) Situation when a child has respiratory problems
Answer 3 b.
Cyanosis is a when a child with low oxygen levels in his blood gets blue discolouration around his eyes, nails and mucous membrane. This situation occurs because of a high concentration of deoxygenated blood. Cyanopsis can vary as a result of factors such as colour of the room and clothes that a child is wearing and skin pigmentation.
- Why is surgical correction of the heart not totally beneficial?
a) It causes death
b) It does not completely heal the illness
c) It causes other infections
d) Complications may arise and lead to more damage.
Answer 4 b.
Surgical correction of the heart does not completely fix all the complex complications. This means that procedures have to be repeated so as to manage heart conditions. Full recovery is not always guaranteed.
- Explain what postoperative care entails.
A) Therapy after a surgery.
B) Use of medication to treat pain after surgery
C) Observation of any complications that may occur after surgery.
D) Repeat of a surgery to ensure that a condition has totally been cleared.
Answer 5 c.
Postoperative care includes, observing if there are any complications after surgery; giving emotional support; allowing the child to rest; making sure you monitor fluids and observing vitals signs.