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Acute Respiratory Track Infections

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Question One

Acute respiratory track infections are extremely contagious. Parents and other grown us often know how they can prevent the infections from spreading. However, for children might be difficult. What are the measures to be taken to prevent spreading of infections from children?

a)      Children should be washed hands completely, disposal of all tissues and restrict any sharing of cups for children who are sick

b)      Take the children in a crowded place

c)      Educate the children on how to wipe their nose on holding their mouth

d)      Limit movement for all children

Answer (a)

Rationale

Researchers argue that children do not know how to avoid infections because they tend to forget unlike adults. For this reason, it is better to help the prevent diseases because they might lead more infections.

Page 1305

Question Two

Acute respiratory track infections are extremely difficult to prevent. For children it is hard because they lack complete immune systems since it has not developed fully. For this reason, they need proper measures to prevent infections. What are the measures to be taken to prevent spread of infection?

a)      Isolation of all children who are sick

b)      Cleanliness should be maintained continuously while avoiding secretion from infected children

c)      Use of antibiotic to prevent other children from being infected

d)      Limit movement of children

Answer (b)

Rationale

This ensures that there are minimal infections spreading to child since they are the most vulnerable as compared to adults.

Page 1310

Question Three

Tonsils are among the infections affecting children. When children are given medical attention in the hospitals, parents are usually given guidelines to sue when they go home. What are the guidelines provided to parents when they go home?

Answer

a)      Parents should avoid gurgling, vigorous brushing of teeth and use of ice coolers

b)      Parents should limit children movement to ease pain

c)      Parents should limit infected children from talking

d)      Parents should allow children to take what they want but they should not drink hot drinks

Answer (a)

Rationale

For the purposes of ensuring that, no more infections will take place when the child goes home for parental care.

Page 1313

Question Four

What are the various types of pneumonia?

Answer

a)      High fever pneumonia, lobar pneumonia

b)      Bronchus pneumonia, seasonal pneumonia

c)      Lobar Pneumonia, Bronchopneumonia and Interstitial Pneumonia

d)      Seasonal pneumonia

Answer (c)

Rationale

To educate parents the different types of pneumonia so that they can know what their children are suffering. Additionally, they would know care to give their children.

Page 1324

Question Five

What is the nursing care for children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome?

Answer

  • Hand washing should be strict for people with the infections
  • Children should not be kept in crowded rooms
  • Antibiotics and other medication should be offered

Rationale

This is properly done to ensure that there are no secondary infections and that the child is healed in time. Additionally, this care is done to ensure that there is no spreading of the disease.

Page 1329

Chapter 47

Question One

What are the nutrients that can lack in the growth of a child who is vegetarian?

Answer

a)      Lack of enough proteins for growth and calories for energy

b)      Lack of enough iron

c)      A deficiency of carbohydrates

d)      In some case, they may lack iodine

Answer (a)

Rationale

This is for the purposes of helping vegetarian children. Parents might require preparing a diet that will suite them creating a healthy growth of the child.

Page 1365

Question Two

What are the categories for food sensitivities?

Answer

  1. Food allergy/ hypersensitivity, Food intolerance
  2. Food allergy and food disorder
  3. Food intolerance and food disorder
  4. Food sensors and food allergies

Answer (a)

Rationale

Parents require to whether their children are allergic or sensitive to foods. For this reason, parents should ensure they have learned whether their children are food sensitive to know the type of diet they would need to offer their child.

Page 1370

Question Three

What is the treatment for lactose intolerance for children?

Answer

Total elimination of dairy products for the child is better but in some cases, minimal provision of these dairy products could be helpful for the child.

Rationale

This is extremely helpful for parents so that they cannot offer their children who are affected by lactose, dairy products. In this case, it will prevent any growth disorders that might occur.

Question Four

Many parents tend to wonder what the correct diet is for their children with no proper answer. For this reason nurse should be able to proper diets for parents to follow. What is the proper diet provided by nurses for children?

Answers

a)      Parents should provide all the nutrients for the children especially those that are rich in growth of the body

b)      Parents should ensure that they do not provide excessive nutrients while others are deficient.

c)      Clean hygiene should be maintained in handling foods

d)      Food should be properly cooked

Answer (a)

Rationale

Parents have a proper hygiene and ideal of a diet that they should provide their children with incase they do not have an idea. Secondly, it ensures a healthy growth in children when they are growing up.

Page 1374

Question Five

What are the diagnostic evaluations for a child suffering from acute gastroenteritis?

Answer

a)      Checking of medical history

b)      Checking the symptoms exhibited by the children

c)      Checking whether there are other infections that could be causing this symptoms

d)      All the above

Answer (d)

Rationale

The purposes of this are to ensure that the child is given the correct diagnosis. This makes sure that there is no confusion and the child is provided with the correct care depending on the ailment or disorders he or she is suffering from.

Page 1386

Chapter 48

Question One

What are the common signs for digoxin toxicity in children?

Answer

a)      Anorexia

b)      Vomiting

c)      Nausea

d)      Dysrhythmias

e)      Bradycardia

f)        All the above

Answer (f)

Rationale

This is for the purposes of educating the parents to know what their child might be suffering from. Additionally, it helps parents and nurses to know the care they should provide for the child.

Page 1460

Question Two

What are the expected complications after cardiac surgery and treatment approaches?

Answer

a)      Postoperative bleeding

b)      Anemia

c)      Congestive heart failure

d)      Pleural effusions

e)      All the above

Answer (e)

Rationale

This is for the purposes of ensuring that the nurses know the after surgery care for the baby and what precautions they should take to avoid the mentioned disorders. Additionally, the parents are also educated in case they come across these disorders.

 Page 1470

Question Three

What is the nursing care provided to children suffering from anti cardiovascular disorder?

Answer

a)      Counseling parents on the care they are supposed to offer the children

b)      The nurse should ensure to tell the parents to inform dentists of the ailments incase they visit one

c)      Nurses should provide detailed information on any disorders or symptoms that might be expected

d)      The nurse should visit the child regularly

Answer (b)

Rationale

This aims at educating the parents of any symptoms that might occur. In this case, they reduce stress related case from the side of the parents. Finally, the child is attended to properly.

Question Four

What is the care offered to a child suffering from cardiomyopathy?

Answer

a)      Many activities should be restricted

b)      Children should be involved in decision making regarding the activities to take

c)      Care should be provided to the children for proper health facilities

d)      All the above

Answer (d)

Rationale

In this case, patients are made aware that their child is suffering from a serious ailment so they should take proper care for the children.

Page 1478

Question Five

What are the main areas to investigate when checking cardiac history?

Answer

a)      Poor feedings habits

b)      Poor weight gain

c)      Frequent infections of the track

d)      None of the above

Answer (c)

Rationale

This helps the nurses establishes the causes of causing cardiac diseases. In this case, the nurses will be able to prevent the disease as quickly as possible.

Page 1487

Chapter 49

Question One

What are the consequences that appear to a child who is infected with anemia?

Answer

a)      It causes greater amounts of blood to return to the heart and lead to cardiac failure

b)      Older children might are have high growth rate

c)      It can cause growth retardation to all children

d)      Children form poor social skills

Answer (a)

Rationale

Anemia causes difficulties in the pumping blood thus cause blood to move back to the heart. This leads to cardiac failure.

Page 1492

Question Two

When treating sickle cell anemia a nurse is supposed to have objectives. This is because if there are no objectives it might continue to spread. What are the objectives of treating sickle cell anemia?

Answer

a)      To ensure little energy is lost and the oxygen that is being used

b)      To provide blood replacement blood replacement

c)      Provision of antibiotics to treat any infection

d)      All the above

Above (d)

Rationale

All the above choices are correct because a nurse is supposed to ensure that anemia is treated and the suffering child is not infected again.

Page 1497

Question Three

Red blood cells are extremely vital to the body. If they decrease, they cause certain effects. What effects are caused by red blood cells?

Answer

a)      Nutritional deficiency  and born marrow failure

b)      Bodily weakness

c)      Fatigue in the part of the child

d)      None of the above

Answer (a)

Rationale

The main aim is to educate the parents and the nurses the consequences of having a decrease red blood cell production in the body of a child.

Question Four

Iron deficiency anemia is not that common to children. However, when it infects it is dangerous. Therefore, how is iron deficiency anemia managed by parents?

Answer

a)      Children are provided with iron supplements

b)      Children are maintained given proper care with extreme cautions

c)      Parents are advised to monitor the activities of the children

d)      All the above

Answer (d)

Rationale

This is because all the above choices are effective when it comes to manage iron deficiency anemia. They ensure that it does not infect the child again.

Page 1494

Question Five

Therapy is important to sickle cell anemia patients. What are the important of therapy in sickle cell anemia?

Answer

a)    Preventing the sickling phenomena responsible for other infections and prevent the medical emergencies of sickle cell crisis

b)     To offer antibiotics to the child

c)     Preventing infection by isolating other children

d)     Limiting activities for the different children

Answer (a)

Rationale

The management of anemia ensures that no more infections continue. Additionally, it ensures that the cell does not continue to spread.

Chapter 50

Question one

What are the various tracts that are used to describe the urinary tract disorders?

Answers

a)      Bacteriuria – this is the presence of bacteria on the urine

b)      Asymptomatic bacteriruria

c)      Symptomatic Bacteriuria

d)      Recurrent UTI

e)      ­Persistent UTI

f)        Febrile UTI

g)      Cystitis

h)      Urethritis

i)        Urosepsis

j)        All the above

Answer (j)

Rationale

Nurses can be able to record the difference terms from different location

Page 1530

Question Two

What are the needs of treating UTI?

Answer

a)      To eliminate any current infections

b)      Establish the contributing factors to reduce the risks of occurring

c)      To preventing the systematic spread of the infections

d)      All the above

Answer (d)

Rationale

Help caregivers know how to manage UTI.

Page 1533

Question Three

What are the nursing goals for urinary tract obstruction?

a)      To assists in the diagnosis of the disorder

b)      Help in catering for any problems resulting from the disorder

c)      Identify any cases of urinary tract obstruction

d)      All the above

Answer (d)

Rationale

Nurses tend to forget their aims for this reason, this reminds nurses what they are supposed to do for the patient.

Page 1535

Question Four

Urinary tract obstruction must be maintained. What is the importance of maintaining?

a)      Reducing of urinary protein excretion and infections

b)      Reduction infections for the child

c)      Prevention fluid exposures

d)      Preventing excess urinary discharge

Answer a)

Rationale

The main purposes are to prevent any infections for the child.

Page 1537

Question Five

Many parents do not know what age of children are affected by hymoletic uremic syndrome. For this reason what is the age that affects children with hymoletic uremic syndrome?

a)      6 – 10 year

b)      5 months – 5 years

c)      Below 5 months

d)      10 years and above

Answer (b)

Rationale

At this age the immune system is forming therefore, they are prone to acquiring this disease especially if they have any other infections.

Page 1540

Chapter 51

Question One

Pupils of the eyes are extremely important in evaluating whether people are sick or not. If the pupils are not moving when unconscious they signify?

a)      There is an infection

b)      The child is well

c)      There are signs of brain damage

d)      The child lacks fluids in the body

Answer (c)

Rationale

This shows that the brain is not functioning thus the patient is having a brain disorder.

Question Two

People tend to ignore nursing care for a child who is unconscious. What are the importances of nursing care?

a)   Record any information including changes or activities that might occur

b)   Treat the child

c)   Diagnose the child of any ailments incase of infection

d)   Ensure the child does not harm him or herself

Answer (a)

Rationale

Nurses record information for the doctors to use in diagnosing. Secondly, the parents need to know whether the child is at risk or not.

Page 1558

Question Three

When a child is in a coma, the parents are often in constant stress. The main problem comes when the child dies. For this reason, what is the care given to parents?

Therapy and counseling

Parents usually have the same ailments therefore they should be treated

The should be advised to go home

None of the above

Answer (a)

Rationale

            Parents are usually in shock when a child dies. In most cases, they might not be together. Therefore, they need counseling to reduce the shock.

Page 1562

Question Four

Neurological examinations are extremely important. What are the importances?

Help in deciding other diseases that might affect the patient

Evaluate the extent of diseases

Ensure prevention of disorders

Establish basic neurological information

Answer (d)

Rationale

Neurological information is important to establish what causes the infection whether hereditary or not.

Page 1553

Question Five

What is the importance of ventricular puncture?

Preventing infections preventing chances of getting brain disorders

Reduces disease and infections in the body

Reduces chances of acquiring other infections in the body

Reduces weight loss in the body

Answer (a)

Rationale

Ventricular pressure reduces pressure reducing infections and other chances of getting brain disorders.

Page 1556

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