There are a number of factors which have been associated with causing bullying to take place. The factors can be categorized in the following manner:
The family setting and rearing of children has been under scrutiny as one of the causes of bullying. Though it might not be evident to the parents as such, it has been argued that the way a child is reared determines the kind of characters he/she acquires when she grows up to be old (school aged in this context).it has been argued that poor parenting is majorly the cause of bullying. Bad parenting practices will include lack of attention towards the children as they are growing up. Poor supervision of children leads to poor modeling which enhances the fostering of aggressive behavior (Patterson, DeBaryshe & Ramsey, 1989; Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1986; and Olweus, 1993). It is argued that when parent used harsh verbal language towards their children or even abuse the children physical, they instill some hatred and violent spirit with their minds which likely explodes when they come in contact with other children who can not protect themselves against the bullies. It is argued that even in the case of both parents arguing and using aggressive words towards each other the aggressive behavior is transferred to the children.
According to Jaffe, Wolfe and Wilson (1990).
The connection between witnessing wife assault by children, particularly male children, and bully behavior by children toward peers, has not been well studied, but studies do indicate that aggressive behavior of all kinds is elevated in children who witness violence by their father toward their mother. (Jaffe, Wolfe and Wilson, p. 57)
The family by all means forms the basic foundation for the kind of a behavior that a child can acquire. Parents have a duty to bring up their children with love and help them not develop aggressive behaviors as they grow up towards the age of school going. It should be noted that the modern family has very busy parents and many are the moments that the children are left at the hands of the house-helps. This trait is likely to lead to development of unbecoming behaviors for the children as they are supervised. At times there are traits which children might develop on their own. Such traits have been classified under the individual factors below.
It is argued that there are factors such as temperament which are independent of family upbringing. One of the well documented individual factors in the concept of children is temperament: “Temperament refers to basic tendencies by children to develop certain personality styles and interpersonal behaviors” (ASAP par. 6). It has been observed that being active and impulsive in temperament inclines one more to being bully (Loeber and Dishion, 1983). It has also been seen observed that, “With boys, physical strength compared to age peers also seems to be a characteristic which is associated with bullying, although of course there are many strong, physically adept boys who never bully” (ASAP, par. 6).
The schools context can not be ignored because it the environment where bullying takes place. Two factors which are quite significant are the social context and the supervision level at the school. It is believed that with “appropriate supervision, intervention and climate in a school” (ASAP, par. 9) it is possible to control bullying to a great extent. The supervision levels are determinant of whether bullying takes places in a school environment or not. Close supervision of the school environment will create an environment where bullying will not be conducive to take place. Areas which ought to be well supervised are especially the playgrounds, and the hallways (Espelage & Swearer 2004).
The adults in the school setting are important as their intervention will help to reduce the incidences of bullying. If the adults will be able to intervene appropriately in cases of bullying then cases of bullying are likely to reduce. The school administration has a duty to make the social environment at the school to be warm and one in which all the students find acceptance by all the others without necessarily giving room for discrimination to take place. The teachers should cultivate good relations with the entire student body to make it easy for the students who are bullied to report to the teachers for assistance. The teacher should discourage the habit of bullying by all means and should enact policies which discourage bullying. The policies should be enforced and should never be comprised. Compromising will allow bullying to flourish but strict rules with effectively curb the behavior. The school be the biggest single place where bullying can take place, there is need for cooperation of the school body to ensure that all students are properly checked out (Sadock, Kaplan & Sadock, 2007).
For bullying to be curbed there needs to be cooperation from all the parties involved. It has been observed that the family setting, individual factors and the school setting all can contribute to fostering bullying. The parents have a duty to bring up their children in the right way and teach them social skills and how they can coexist with each other in harmony. Children brought in such a manner will not be very hard to handle at the school level because they will children who are well mannered and cultured up well. The school administration also needs to ensure that the school environment does not in any way act as a safe haven for those who wish bully others. It is the duty of the school administration to ensure that all its environs is safe for all the students. The victims ought to be free and cases of bullying at the times when such occur. This will make it possible to uproot bullying from schools and make the schools a safe place for all the school aged children (Pepler, Craig, Ziegler, & Charach, 1994; Smith, Pepler, & Rigby, 2004).
Bullying comes into play due to a number of factors which balances out to make bullying possible. Bad upbringing is viewed as a major reason. Other reasons include individual factors and the school. It has been shown to be possible to control bullying through the cooperation of the school administration and the parents. The parents have a duty to present an upright child to the school administration and in return the school administration has a duty to ensure that the environment that the children operate is free of bullying.