In the process of growth and development, children are expected to attain all the developmental milestones at the expected time. However, genetic and environmental factors can be cause developmental delays among children. Some of the effects of the developmental delays on children’s learning needs include autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), poor hearing, speech problems, walking difficulties, and intellectual disability. On the other hand, some of the environmental factors have various effects on the children’s behavior. Therefore, curriculum planners ought to understand certain behaviors in order to be effective in their work (Jones, 2010).
Developmental delays occur when a child fails to learn a certain skill at the expected time. For instance, by 9-25 months, a child is expected to have started walking. However, some environmental or genetic factors can make a child delay in walking. One of the effects of developmental delays among children is walking difficulties, hearing problems, intellectual disability and autism and ADHD. Additionally, there are environmental factors that affect the child’s development.
For instance, when a child grows in a chaotic, restricted, and full of negativity and sadness, maternal depression, and toxins, he or she develops negative behaviors. They lose confidence, courage and develop low self-esteem and emotional outbursts. Others include a child’s birth position, family size, and economic status. Poverty can result in malnutrition, which in turn, leads to delayed development of a child. Another example of a developmental delay is failure of a 12-month baby to sit without support (Allen & Marotz, 2010). Therefore, it is imperative that the curriculum planners develop an integrated curriculum in order to take care of all the children’s learning needs.
During curriculum planning, it is imperative that the educators pay attention key behaviors in order to provide children with all the learning needs. This is because these behaviors are influential in the determination of the curriculum to use in their teaching and learning. It is essential to observe such behaviors so that the teachers can plan on effective ways of adequately providing for the children (Jones, 2010). For instance, a child with hearing or vision problems needs special attention from the rest of the children in class. Therefore, awareness of these difficulties is enables educators to attend to the children according to their needs in order to achieve learning objectives.
Another instance involves a child that has ADHD condition. It is necessary that teachers are able to read and understand all signs of the condition. Knowledge of the condition is highly indispensable as it enables educators to provide them with their needs. Such a child is often found on the wrong because he or she cannot keep the school rules. They also have temperament and different personalities from those of the other children. Therefore, great attention should be given to them so that their learning becomes effective. Consequently, the process of curriculum gets easier and effective as all the children meet their respective learning needs (Bailey & Guskey, 2001).
Autism is another behavior that educators ought to observe in the process of planning their curriculum. This is observed among 3-year old children who develop an impaired communication and social interaction. It is important for a teacher to know this behavior so as to adjust the curriculum to fit children displaying the behavior. The teacher can develop special strategies of encouraging communication among the children. This way, teaching and learning becomes an integrated process and, in turn, benefits all the learners in class. These children will also feel cared for, appreciated and motivated in class (Jones, 2010).
It is also essential to identify children with learning disabilities so as to enable them achieve their objectives. Such children are slow in solving problems and comprehending concepts in class. Such children also have difficulties in spelling, writing or reading some words (Allen & Marotz, 2010). Careless educators will not notice them; hence their performance deteriorates because they do not meet their learning needs. Nonetheless, a teacher that has observed these behaviors is able to address the difficulties effectively, hence allowing the children an opportunity to achieve their learning objectives.
In every preschool, there are specific components that are instrumental in effective learning and teaching process. On of the components is a clean and welcoming physical surrounding. Effective learning takes place is a clean environment that is equipped with essential posters and labels (Rose, 2010). This enables children to freely learn and play; hence; enhanced growth and development. Therefore, in order to achieve learning objectives in pre-school, educators should ensure that there is a clean environment.
Curriculum is another highly indispensable component of an effective preschool. It should entail a lot of play, art work, science, and mathematics (Rose, 2010). A reputable preschool should emphasize on the children’s experience rather than on completion of assignments. It is worth noting that lecture method is unsuitable for the young children since they learn effectively through play and art work. Therefore, quality preschool educators incorporate active strategies in their experiments in order to make the learning process effective.
Another important component in a preschool is respect for children’s preferences (Rose, 2010). Learning is very effective in an environment that respects the child’s needs and preferences. Ignoring their needs and interests can really discourage a child as he or she might feel unappreciated or unattended. Children’s comfort is paramount in order to cooperate in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, the child’s teachers and other preschool staff should be friendly to the child in order to make the curriculum effective. In fact, teachers have to join the children in their plays so as to develop good relationships.