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Case Management

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Case Management can be classified as form of a Business Process Management. It may not fit in the common tools of Business Process Management but it is well described as a Document Management, customer management, or customer relationship management. It can be used in many different industries for example government, banking and Health care (Silver, 2009).

In relation to the industry it is applied it is modelled categorically to suit that particular industry.  In handling cases one does not follow the conventional way of stages or principles. This is because it has unstructured progression from its initial stage to the final stage. The normal processes follow a sequence of steps that can be well defined as paths in given diagrams. This is a logical diagram that describes a process and shows the direction it takes and elements it consists (Silver, 2009).

 The paths are mostly determined by Human judgement, external factors and the principles guiding the business and the steps are defined prior to handling the case. This is contrary to case management where one cannot predetermine the flow of the processes and it cannot be influenced by factors such as human judgement and external factors.

What is case Management and what are the qualifications to be a case manager?

This is the process of assessment, planning, implementation and monitoring and review. In this essay I will tackle its application in Health care and to begin with we look at the qualification to be a case manager (NSW Docs 2008).

In case Management Training for students considering a career in Case Management in Psychology they need to pursue an Associate of Arts Degree in Psychology. This Programme focuses on Positive psychology, Human sexuality, physiological and neurological basis of human behaviour and social interactions. Students of case management particularly need to be able to evaluate the robustness of various psychometrics and assess the impacts of cognition on physical and mental health (Online Education.net, 2010).

One can also be a case manager in the Health department by studying for an Associate of Arts in Health Administration Degree. This can also be a programme to be undertaken for those who want to pursue Patient Administration and management. This field addresses specific issues and workplace behaviors associated with a career in health administration and students study administration, health care, legal issues and public policy, technology, and health care financing. Student who go through this programme obtain excellent skills in communications arts, social sciences, humanities, math, and information technology (Just colleges, 2010).

 The student will learn how to research, analyze and apply vital information to real-world challenges and opportunities.  The program enables the students to also develop communication, team work, and critical thinking skills. This are overly applied to the cases which they are assigned be it in the counseling department or the normal patients department (Just colleges, 2010).

There are common concepts that are learnt in these programmes that enable students to be proper case managers. They help the students have the skills required to make the individual with a case of dejection feel appreciated and capable of sharing their story, this is because if one may not share a problem then you practically cannot manage the case effectively.

Students who are interested in pursuing Case Management and have undergone training in An Associate of Arts Degree and training in An Associate of Art in Health Administration Degree are expected to come out when they fully understand the concepts of Empathy, Active Listening and Persistence in order to be relevant to the requirements of the field. We will take a look at learning outcomes and an understanding of the concepts of Empathy, Active listening and persistence (Louis, 1994).

In order to know that students have leant and gained knowledge a standard measurement is supposed to be observed. This is called the Learning outcome. Learning outcomes are termed as statements that outline the requirements, standards and skills learners will know and be able to fulfill as a result of the learning activity. Outcomes are usually expressed as knowledge, skills, or attitudes (Louis, 1994).

The concept of empathy has not been clear over the years and critical research of scholars from the field of philosophy, theology, developmental psychology, social and personality psychology, ethology, and neuroscience often had a lot of discrepancies over the idea in relation to nature of the phenomenon (Preston et al., 2000). By adopting the works of behavioural research carried out for a long time on empathy combined with the more recent knowledge of physiology and neuroanatomy, there is finally light at the end of the tunnel regarding this mechanism and it can clearly be adopted Empathy can be referred to situations in which a subject has a similar emotional state to an object as a result of perceiving the object's situation (Preston et al., 2000).

 The ability to understand another person’s circumstances, point of view, thoughts, and feelings. When experiencing empathy, you are able to understand someone else’s internal experiences. This covers the overall understanding that Empathy is tends to have a root in the personalities of self and other, where emotional feelings are directed towards the other (Pedneault, 2009).

After completion of the Psychology curriculum, students will:

  • Need to be have knowledge of the main subject areas in the field of psychology, such as the  core concepts and major theories
  • Have an understanding of  the basic types of research methodologies used in psychology and how to acquire psychological knowledge in different subject areas is using these methods
  • Possess the ability of putting into practice and the necessary experience required in the application of psychological principles such as Empathy in the case management in everyday life situations, in relation to the lecture materials.
  • Have an understanding of how psychological principles function across cultural boundaries and have the ability  to apply situations cutting across the cultural divide, as well as to issues that are specific to particular tribal cultures
  • Show Improvement in  written and spoken communication skills, active listening skills, and skills in communicating within and across cultures
  • Have the skills of searching, understanding and the application the ideas of materials written by scholars in psychological areas

In relation to Case Management, the learning of this concept gives the student the ability to properly use this concept in order to give an opportunity to the patient (SalishKootenaiCollege, 2010)

It can be classified as a habit that develops over time. It is also a basis of effective communication. It is the total focus on the person you are listening to in order to understand what they are saying. The person maybe an individual or a group. In order to achieve Active listening one must understand the factors that affect listening (Hardy, 1996).

Learning out comes dictate that a student after going through the curriculum will:

  • Have the ability of describing the significance of verbal and non- verbal techniques promoting active listening in different cases.
  • Have the ability to demonstrate use of active listening techniques handling of patient cases and any case they are supposed to manage (Rosenthal, n.d).

It is a value of being able to understand that change, improvement or any form of activity to take a desired channel might take time to show sighs.  For example in a case like improving self determination one might be required to go through several stages but may not be responding to therapy. This may call for persistence. In the study of the psychology it can also be in context of persistence to frustration. Improvement, response or change can be slow (Craighead & Nemeroff  2002).

  • After completion of curriculum a student is required to be capable of using this virtue of persistence or patience in case management or be able to influence their clients to have persistence. This is an important factor in Case management because most of the responses or solutions take some time before being recognized (Crown, 2010).

Some authors such as Vince & Reynolds have brought the idea of from the organizational point of view. They look at the concept of reflection as a central and integral part in organizational practice of management. They have broadly explained that it is important to use experience of reflection in working and learning in a professional and organizational context (Reynolds & Vince, 2004).

 They have shown the importance of reflection in making the process of Case Management allowing space for reflection and reshaping a problem to be able to model it to your advantage. Therefore Reflection requires active listening or paying attention and reorganizing the thoughts through critical reflection so as to effectively manage a case. Through reflection case managers establish   paths of communication and cooperation among themselves and the source of the problem (Reynolds & Vince, 2004).

Abstract concepts refer to ideas that do not have physical reference. The idea of Abstract concept is largely related to cognition which is a process of processing information, and applying knowledge.  An example of an abstract concept is Freedom.  These are words or ideas that one cannot actually lay their meaning to a single concept (Friedlander, 2004). 

Given the case of the idea of freedom, it can be expressed in many contexts and not only one. A person may say I want my freedom but you cannot synthesize from what. Maybe he is not free at his working place, maybe it is freedom in dressing and there are many examples that can be applied to this single abstract concept (Friedlander, 2004).

This is the processing of information collected through concrete experience or abstract conceptualization. David Kolb’s work explains the stages of concrete experience leading to observation and reflections leading to the formation of Abstract concepts and generalizations. Through this people gather information. The learning styles also yield four styles diverger, accommodator, assimilator and converger (Pritzker & Runco, 1999)

Each of them has different strengths in the stages of learning. Active experimentation is based as strength of abstract conceptualization learning stages of learning. They prefer to work on applying practical ideas like working with components and not people since people are relatively unemotional and have a narrow line of interests (Pritzker & Runco, 1999)

Case Management is duly an important process in the organization and it is effective in dealing with issues or cases that do not follow the conventional means of working. To achieve the level of a case manager one has to be a good learner and also able to apply the skills in question in the right way. Case management in health care is the backbone of many problems that are mentally oriented like depression, trauma and many others. Case management is an organizational problems solution if applied well.

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